Classifying Adverbs

By ChrisN, in 'Latin Beginners', Feb 6, 2018.

  1. ChrisN Member


    I'm trying to sort my notes on adverbs out.
    I've got three categories:
    • Place
    • Time
    • Manner, Degree or Cause
    Under which of these would I put quoque / etiam (also)? Or do I need a new category?
  2. Araneus Umbraticus Lector

    • Civis Illustris
    Aren't quoque and etiam conjunctions?
  3. Pacifica grammaticissima

    • Civis Illustris
    Etiam can be an adverb of time meaning "still", but in its "also" meaning it certainly doesn't belong there.

    Perhaps "also/too", etiam and quoque can be said to be adverbs of manner, sort of like "in the same manner as something previously mentioned". Perhaps they're officially put in a different category, though, I don't know.
  4. ChrisN Member

    'Also' is listed in English dictionaries as an adverb e.g. he was also interested in ....
  5. Pacifica grammaticissima

    • Civis Illustris
    The Oxford Latin Dictionary classifies quoque as an adverb and etiam as a "particle", though it feels like an adverb of sorts to me.

    L&S classifies them both as conjunctions but I don't get what their rationale was—perhaps it's just because etiam/quoque and also/too convey some reference to a previous clause so some would call that a conjunction...
  6. Araneus Umbraticus Lector

    • Civis Illustris
    Here's from Bennet's grammar:

    347. 1. The following particles, sometimes classed as Conjunctions, are more properly Adverbs:—
    etiam, also, even.
    quoque (always post-positive), also.
    quidem (always post-positive) lays stress upon the preceding word. It is sometimes equivalent to the English indeed, in fact, but more frequently cannot be rendered, except by vocal emphasis.
    nē ... quidem means not even; the emphatic word or phrase always stands between; as, nē ille quidem, not even he.
    tamen and vērō, in addition to their use as Conjunctions, are often employed as Adverbs.
    Siegfried Zaytsev and Pacifica like this.
  7. ChrisN Member

    Very interesting. I seem to have touched upon a problem area. I'll file both words under 'Adverbs: Unknown Classification' for now. Thanks for your help.
  8. john abshire Member

    for reference, and for what it is worth;
    in an (old) 1917 Latin (brooklyn) high school textbook it lists etiam as both conj and adverb, i.e.
    etiam, conj. and adverb=and also, also, even

    however, quoque is listed as a conjunction (only), i.e.
    quoque, conj.=also

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