1. Linnaeus59 Member

    How are Latin composite words stressed? Do the component words keep their stress, or does the entire word behave as one single word? Also, my grammar says Latin words ending in an enclitic always have the stress on the syllable before the enclitic, but I am not quite certain what endings count as enclitics. I believe –que (and), and –ne (question marker) are enclitics, but what about -dam in quidam and –dem in idem?

    So, where is the stress in aliquis, eadem (nominative), eadem (ablative), quibusdam, propterea, interest, interfuit?
  2. Bitmap Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Cygnea, Gena
    -dam and -dem are not enclitica. regular ante-penultimate with those words:

    áliquis
    éadem (nom)
    eádem (abl)
    proptérea
    quibúsdam
    ínterest
    intérfuit
  3. Quasus Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Águas Santas
    What about alicui? Actually it’s disyllabic with the rare diphthong ui, but could it perhaps inherit the stress on U from a distant time?
  4. Imber Ranae Ranunculus Iracundus

    • Civis Illustris
    Do you mean trisyllabic?

    Anyway, the ancient form was just aliquoi, wasn't it? How would that form affect the stress differently?
  5. Quasus Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Águas Santas
    Yes, trisyllabic. :) I guess quoi is a single syllable? Then indeed there was no reason to change the stress.
  6. Quasus Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Águas Santas
    One more question. How many syllables are there in the word circumagere? Do the letters -uma- represent merely [uma] or a hiatus or an elision?
  7. Bitmap Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Cygnea, Gena
    You would think that there should be an inner hiatus, but that doesn't seem to be the case. There seems to be no alternative spelling like "circagere" (as is the the case with "trans-", e.g. transdere/tradere) and the few examples that I came across in poetry suggest that the -cum- is pronounced; e.g. Juv IX,8: "circ[u-short:2audhd8n][/u-short:2audhd8n]m[i-short:2audhd8n][/i-short:2audhd8n]t et fatuos non inuenit. unde repente"
  8. Quasus Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Águas Santas
    Thanks, Bitmap. I knew I could rely on your knowledge of poetry. :thumbup:
  9. Imber Ranae Ranunculus Iracundus

    • Civis Illustris
    Yep.

    Frequent spellings like circueo and circuitus would indicate hiatus, though, wouldn't they?

    What's interesting about the circum compounds, and sets circum apart from other preverbs, is that it does not cause any vowel weakening in the verb stem. So you have 1st conj. circumdare rather than 3rd conj. as circumdere*, which is what most compounds of dare become. So, too, we have circumago as compared with vowel-weakened abigo or elided cogo and dego.

    The greater incidence of tmesis with circum compounds also shows that it doesn't function like a regular preverb. It seems to retain more of an adverbial quality, being somewhat independent of the verb, I suppose. Yet the fact that the -um is never elided in poetry would suggest that such verbs were nevertheless thought of as a single unit, more like a fully compounded verb.

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