Conjugating in present tense

By perra9009, in 'Latin Beginners', Feb 19, 2007.

  1. perra9009 New Member

    Location:
    Sweden
    Hello, I've decided to learn my first latin verbs and before I learn wrong, is this correct? :puzzle:

    Divido
    Dividas
    Dividat
    Dividamus
    Dividatis
    Dividant

    Laboro
    Laboras
    Laborat
    Laboramus
    Laboratis
    Laborant

    Cogito
    Cogitas
    Cogitat
    Cogitamus
    Cogitatis
    Cogitant

    Navigo
    Navigas
    Navigat
    Navigamus
    Navigatis
    Navigant

    ..and so on...

    :roll:

    Is there any diffrences on how to form the verb if its 1,2,3 or 4 conjugation? I think divídere is the third?

    Thanks for all answers! :clapping:
  2. QMF Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Virginia, US
    Conjugation differences are manifold. As you noticed, divido is of the 3rd. Its present tense is therefore different from the others, which are 1st conjugation. Divido would be conjugated as such in the present:
    divido
    dividis
    dividit
    dividimus
    dividitis
    dividunt
    The others are correct.
    May I ask if you have a teacher or if you are learning at school? If you are not doing either of those things and are interested, then I will teach you the differences between the conjugations in all the tenses.
  3. perra9009 New Member

    Location:
    Sweden
    I dont have a teacher or learning latin at school. Im interested in learning latin and have tried a web-course. Im glad if you want to help me :)
  4. QMF Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Virginia, US
    Well, we can start with the present tense. It's pretty straightforward other than the 3rd conjugation.
    1st conjugation infinitives end in -are. You already know the endings in the present (-o, -s, -t, etc.) and all you do is take off the re and add those endings. In the first conjugation things are a bit different in the first person singular and the a is not kept, so you get things like amo, cogito, etc.
    2nd conjugation infinitives end in -ere. The first e is long (someone will have to help me with explaining long and short syllables), unlike in the 3rd where it is short. In a dictionary you'll normally see this by seeing the first person singular (i.e. the first principal part) end in -eo. Here you can just add the endings after taking off the -re the whole way through.
    3rd conjugation infinitives end in -ere, the first e is short. You'll see this in the dictionary by seeing the first person singular end in -o (important reiteration: you have to see both the -ere infinitive and the -o first person singular for it to be 3rd conjugation; don't assume the -o makes it 3rd because it could be first!) The 3rd conjugation in the present is probably the most confusing of the bunch. Really you just have to kind of know it, and I already showed you an example.
    The 4th conjugation infinitives end in -ire. (And no, the verb ire is not a 4th conjugation verb, it's irregular :p) In the present the 4th conjugation is very similar to the 2nd conjugation, except with -io, -is, etc. instead of -eo, -es, etc. The 3rd person plural is different, however, because it ends in -iunt. I'll give an example:
    scio
    scis
    scit
    scimus
    scitis
    sciunt
    That's the regular present tense.
  5. perra9009 New Member

    Location:
    Sweden
    Ok, so if i understood this right it should be:

    festíno 1

    festino
    festinas
    festinat....
    ...festinant
    ----------------
    iáceo, iacere 2

    iaceo
    iace-es = iaces (??)
    iace-et = iacet (??)

    ....iaceant .. or icent?
    -------------
    vivo, vívere 3

    vivo
    vives
    vivet....

    ...vivunt
    --------------
    apĕrio, aperui, apertum 4

    aperio
    aperis
    aperit...

    ...aperiant ... or aperint?
  6. QMF Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Virginia, US
    :( You didn't really read what I said all that much. On the 2nd I should've provided an example, but the "endings" per se are -o, -s, t, etc., not -eo, -es, -et, etc. You add that onto the "iace" part.
    The 3rd person plural there is therefore iacent.
    You also didn't look at my example for a 3rd conjugation verb, which was the divido example.
    You ALSO didn't look at my example for a 4th conjugation verb, which was the scio example.
    I'm a little disappointed.
  7. perra9009 New Member

    Location:
    Sweden
    Erm :( I'll read it again xD Thanks for your patience with me :roll:
  8. perra9009 New Member

    Location:
    Sweden
    Aha, erm, I think I understand it better now.. :) (I hope so)

    návigo, navigáre is 1:st conjugation becuase it ends in -are
    -------
    iáceo, iacere is 2:nd OR 3:rd becuase iacere ends in "-ere". It is the 2:nd becuase iaceo ends in "-eo"
    -------
    dívido, divídere is 2:nd OR 3:rd conjugation becuase it ends in -ere. And its the 3:rd becuase "divido" ends in "-o"?
    ---------


    aperio, aperui, apertum (that we know is 4:th conjugation). The infinitive should be aperire?

    And "to hurry"(??) should be "festinare" becuase we know its 1:st?
  9. QMF Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Virginia, US
    All of those questions can be answered with yes.
    Ah yes, I forgot to mention another group, which in my opinion should be the 4th conjugation (and the current 4th conjugation should be the 5th conjugation). That is the -io 3rd conjugation. An example is the verb capio. The infinitive is capere, with a short first e; it's a 3rd conjugation infinitive. But the first person singular is -io. These verbs, in the present tense, are conjugated the same except for the 1st person singular (which is given, capio) and the third person plural (capiunt). In short, the present tense of the -io 3rd conjugation is just like the 4th conjugation. It gets different when you get to the perfect system, but I won't go there for now.
  10. perra9009 New Member

    Location:
    Sweden
    Yes! :clapping:

    Erm, so this is correct?

    festíno 1

    festino
    festinas
    festinat
    festinamus
    ...festinant
    ----------------
    iáceo, iacere 2

    infinitive=iacere


    iaceo
    iaces
    iacet
    iacemus
    iacetis
    icent

    -------------
    But this is your example:
    divido
    dividis
    dividit
    dividimus
    dividitis
    dividunt

    and as you said "3rd conjugation infinitives end in -ere"

    shouldn't it be like infinitive=dividere

    divido
    divides
    dividet
    dividemus
    dividetis
    dividunt


    :puzzle:
    :?

    vivo, vívere 3

    infinitive=vivere

    vivo
    vives
    vivet
    vivemus
    vivetis
    vivunt



    :?

    --------------
    apĕrio, aperui, apertum 4

    infinitive=aperire

    aperio
    aperis
    aperit
    aperimus
    aperitis
    aperint
  11. QMF Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Virginia, US
    Minor typographical error on iacent.
    As I said, you just sort of have to know the 3rd conjugation. Taking off the whole -ere, it's -o, -is, -it, -imus, -itis, -unt. Here's another example, the most commonly used because it is short and a pretty common verb:
    (dico, dicere, dixi, dictum):
    dico
    dicis
    dicit
    dicimus
    dicitis
    dicunt
    (I may as well mention that this verb means "to say")
    It's a bit counterintuitive, I realize. It's also the conjugation with the largest variation in its perfect system conjugation, but again, I won't go into that yet.
    And again, in the 4th conjugation, the 3rd person plural is -iunt, so it's aperiunt.
  12. perra9009 New Member

    Location:
    Sweden
    Nice, thanks for all help! :D :)
    So, just to be sure, i shall form "vivere" like this:

    vivo
    vivis
    vivit
    vivimus
    vivitis
    vivunt

    ---------------------

    Ah! One more question :whistle:
    iáceo, iacere 2 = rest
    conjugation 2

    so, will it be (for He sleep) = Iace-et = Iacet??
  13. QMF Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Virginia, US
    Yes, that is how vivere is formed. You're getting it :D
    Yes. Although iacere is quite literally lay as in lay down, rest would be dormire or quiescere.
    I'm also curious why your dictionary accents the a in iaceo. The e is long, and a long penult is accented...strange. But don't worry about that.
  14. perra9009 New Member

    Location:
    Sweden
    :D Im very happy that you helped me with this! :)
    And, just one more thing (As I always say) :)

    How shall I form "fácio, fácere 3B"?
    Will it be:
    You do = Faciunt? It is a bit hard to pronounce...

    The webcourse gives me some words for "homework". But there is one word i dont understand:
    ni(hi)l - Should be "nothing" but what does the "(hil)" mean?
  15. QMF Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Virginia, US
    Facio is of the -io third conjugation that I described previously. In the present tense it is conjugated the same way as the 4th conjugation (although the i is short, but that doesn't matter here.)
    Ni(hi)l is really showing two words (nihil and nil) that mean the same thing. Nil is really a shortening of nihil, with the part in parentheses taken out.
  16. Cato Consularis

    • Consularis
    Location:
    Chicago, IL
    Check that; the e in jaceo, jacet, and jaceor is short (long for all other present tenses).
  17. perra9009 New Member

    Location:
    Sweden
    Aha, so all verbs that ends with -io in "I-form", that at least the course Im reading calls "3B" is formed like the 4th-conjugation?
  18. QMF Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Virginia, US
    Yes. 3B is a decent way to refer to it, because as I said it's basically its own conjugation.
    And that's interesting Cato, I wonder why that part of the verb is different from the rest of the 2nd conjugation.
  19. Cato Consularis

    • Consularis
    Location:
    Chicago, IL
    I'm sure someone will come up with an example to prove me wrong, but I think for all verb forms that end in (vowel)+t (no matter the tense/mood), the vowel is always short, no matter the conjugation. You're right, this is at odds with other forms in the same tense; jaces has long e, but jacet is short e.

    My only theory is that it was so common a form that it shortened with casual, colloquial usage (the same way contractions came into English). 1st and 3rd person are certainly more common than 2nd in everyday speech. Paging Marius...

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