Hot-Stove Latin

By Iynx, in 'Latin Neologisms', Sep 22, 2006.

  1. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    I know that many users of this Forum do not live in the US, and I apologize in advance for what may seem a very parochial thread.

    But I have some excuse; it is a sad time for us here (sadder this year than in many others, but that for other reasons). It is every year, in the Fall, that the Game comes to an end. The snow will lie on the fields, and unless we finally decide to move WAY south, it will be March or later before the sun shines on the grass, and we smell the leather again.

    But this year, maybe, we can make the winter less empty. I propose that we collectively create something that the world has needed for a very long time: a set of terms, in Latin, for use in the game that Cato here calls (in the ablative) fosse basso, that Henry Beard calls sedipila (nominative), and that I know as basis-pila(also nominative). This tongue of ours should at last include a nomenclature for the Game. Heck, we should at least should be able to agree on what to call it!

    In a post immediately following this one, I will start a sort of glossary; I will begin with one term (Catuli) that has been used here already (in the Latin-Only Section), and on which we seem to have a tacet consensus, and two others (Piratae and clava) that seem to me pretty obvious. Making into the glossary should not make a term immune from criticism or change. But I hope we can spend most of the available time chewing over various options for terms that are not yet there, as we have done with many another English-to-Latin translation over time, often in much less noble causes.

    As we reach consensus on terms, I will edit the glossary post to include them. I know that there are a few other terms in Beard, and probably elsewhere, and these will need to be brought into the discussion at the appropriate time, just as we would material from Cicero, or the Vulgate in one of our more ordinary discussions.

    In a third post, the first after the glossary, I will try to start things rolling by proposing a few further terms for discussion.

    Sancte Hieronyme, ora pro nobis!
  2. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    Nomenclatura Ludi Basipilae (Baseball Nomenclature)
    **********************************************************
    I. Terms by Category (English /Latin) /Verba per Genus (Anglice: Latine)

    A. The Big Picture: Pictura Magna:

    baseball (the game): basipila, -ae. The game of baseball: ludus basipilae.

    game: ludus, -i (m).

    inning: ingressus, -us (m).

    run (the thing scored): cursus, -us (m)

    play (term for certain events in the game): lusus, -us (m).

    play (verb): ludo, ludere (III), lusi, lusum.

    safe: tutus, -a, um.
    out (adjective): exitus, -a, -um (perfect passive participle of exeo).
    out (noun): exitum, -i (n).

    live ball: pila viva.
    dead ball: pila mortua.

    B. The Field of Play: Ager Ludi:

    stadium: stadium, -i (n)
    (ball)field /(ball)park /(ball)yard: ager, agris (m) /campus, -i (m) /rhombus, -i (m)
    diamond: rhombus, -i (m)

    seats: sedils, sedelium (n) seats (see also "stands", "bleachers").
    stands: cavea, -ae (f) maenianum, -i (n)(both = "bank of seats"; so often plural; see also "seats", "bleachers")
    bleachers: scamna, scamnorum (n)(see also "seats", "stands")
    lower deck: maenianum imum .
    upper deck: maenianum summum.
    mezzanine: maenianum intermedium.

    bullpen: cohors, cohortis (f).


    fence: saepes, saepis (f)
    wall: murus, -i (m) /maceria, -ae (f) /moenia, -ium (n)
    screen: rete, -is (n) /linum, -i (n).
    scoreboard: tabula, -ae (f).

    playing surface: solum, -i (n)
    grass: gramen, graminis (n)
    dirt: humus, -i (f).
    artificial turf /Astroturf: gramen artificiosum.

    bench /dugout: subsellium, -i (n)

    on-deck circle:
    fungo circle:


    territoria de fas: fair territory.
    territoria de nefas: foul territory.
    linea de nefas: foul line.
    linea primae basis: first-base line.
    linea tertiae basis: third-base line.

    contus de nefas: foul pole.
    territoria de pila mortua: dead-ball territory
    territoria de pila viva: live-ball territory


    outfield: exagellus, -i (m)
    left field: (ex)agellus sinister
    center field: (ex)agellus centralis
    right field: (ex)agellus dexter

    base: basis, basis (f).

    bag (marking a base): saccus, -i (m); follis, -is (m)

    first base: Prima (basis)
    second base: Secunda (basis)
    third base: Tertia (basis)
    home: domus, -us (f)

    (home) plate: scutula (domus)

    batter's box: fines clavatoris
    catcher's box: fines receptoris


    lane:
    basepath:
    cutout:

    coach's box:

    mound: colliculus, -i (m)

    (pitching) rubber /pitcher's plate: scutula clavatoris /cummis, -is (f).

    "the gap":
    "the hole":
    (power) alley:


    C. The People of the Game /Ludi Personae:

    player: lusor, -oris (c)

    substitute: vicarius, -i (c) substitutus, -i (c)


    defender: defensor, -oris (c)
    defensive substitute: defensor vicarius /defensor substitutus

    fielder: custos, custodis (c) /prehensor, -oris (c)


    pitcher: iaculator, -oris (c)
    catcher: receptor, -oris (c)
    firstbaseman: custos primae basis
    secondbaseman: custos secundae basis
    thirdbaseman: custos tertiae basis
    shortstop: brevisistor, -oris (c)
    leftfielder: custos agelli sinistri
    centerfielder: custos agelli dextri
    rightfielder: custos agelli centralis


    infielder: custos inagelli (collectively: inagellus).
    outfileder: custos exagelli (collectively: exagellus).


    starting pitcher:
    rotation:
    swing man:
    relief pitcher:
    short relief pitcher:
    long relief pitcher:
    set-up man:
    closer:


    right-handed pitcher: iaculator dexter.
    left-handed pitcher: iaculator sinister /laevus.
    sidearm pitcher /sidewinder: iaculator a latere.
    underhand /submarine pitcher: iaculator supinus.


    batter /hitter: clavator, -toris (c)
    designated hitter: clavator designatus.
    pinch-hitter: clavator vicarius; clavator substitutus

    right-handed hitter: clavator dexter.
    left-handed hitter: clavator sinister /laevus.
    switch-hitter: clavator ambidexter.


    contact hitter:
    power hitter:


    runner: cursor, -oris (c)
    pinch-runner: cursor vicarius; cursor substitutus.


    manager: ??rector, rectoris /lanista, lanistae??


    coach:


    trainer: alipta, -ae (c).

    umpire: arbiter, arbitri (c).

    umpire-in-chief: arbiter principalis
    crew chief: princeps comitatus arbitrorum
    plate umpire: arbiter scutulae
    base umpire (if only one): arbiter basium /arbiter campi /arbiter agri; (if multiple) arbiter basis.
    firstbase umpire: arbiter primae basis
    secondbase umpire: arbiter secundae basis
    thirdbase umpire: arbiter tertiae basis


    firstbase line umpire:
    thirdbase line umpire:


    (official) scorer: archeota (-ae (c)) (magistratus).

    groundskeeper:
    grounds crew:


    D. Equipment /Apparatus:

    bat: clava, -ae (f).

    Parts of the Bat /Partes Clavae:

    knob: bulla, -ae (f) /nodus, -i (m).
    handle: manubrium, -i (n) /capulus, -i (m).
    label: pittacium, -i (n).
    sweet spot: locus dulcis.
    end: finis, -is (m).


    bat weight: pondus clavae (#) (pondus, ponderis (n)).
    pine tar: pix pinus (pix, picis (f); pinus, -us (f)).
    pine-tar rag: panniculus cum pice pinus.



    (base)ball: (basi)pila, -ae (f).
    glove /mitt (fielder's): chirotheca, -ae (f). Batter's gloves: manicae (clavatoris).

    helmet: galea, -ae (f).
    throat protector /Yeager: iaeger, iaegeri (m).
    chest protector: lorica, -ae (f).
    shin protectors: ocreae, -arum (f).

    resin bag: bulga /sacculus resinae (#)(bulga, -ae (f); sacculus, -i (m).[/i]

    athletic supporter: subligaculum, -i (n) /subligar, -aris (n) /subligatura, -ae.
    cup: calix, calicis (m).

    indicator /clicker (umpire's): indicator, -oris (m)

    E. Practice:

    fungo:

    batting cage:

    tee: pedamen, -inis (n)

    to hit from a tee [pilam] pedamine icere.



    F. Game Preliminaries:


    to throw out the first ball: pilam primam eicere.

    G: Pitching /Iacere:

    warmup:

    pitch (or throw): iactus, -us (m)
    to pitch (or to throw): iacere

    ball (pitch not a strike): pila, -ae (f)
    strike: ?laesio, -onis (f) /ferita, -ae (f) /straica. -ae.

    windup: positio suculae (#), To wind up: suculam facere.
    set: positio praesto
    to stretch: pandiculor, -ari, -atus The stretch: pandculari /pandicuandi.
    to kick: calcitro, -are, -avi, -atus. The kick: calx, calcis (f).
    to slide-step: labenter gradi; slide-step: gradus labens.


    fastball: iactus citus.
    tailing /moving fastball: iactus citus movens.
    four-seam fastball: iactus citus quattuor suturis /iactus contra suturas(#).
    two-seam fastball: iactus citus duobus suturis /iactus cum suturis(#).
    cut fastball /cutter: iactus devertens /iactus citus digito tertio (#).
    breaking ball: iactus declinatus.
    brushback pitch: iactus deverrens
    curve: iactus curvatus.
    hanging curve; iactus curvatus suspensus.
    slider: iactus labens.
    screwball: iactus recurvatus.
    sinker : iactus declivis.
    split-finger pitch: iactus digitis separatis (#)
    forkball: iactus furcilla (#)
    changeup: iactus mutatus.
    straight change: iactus mutatus rectus.
    circle change: iactus (mutatus) circulo.(#)
    three-finger change: iactus mutatus tres digitis.(#)
    palmball: iactus (mutatus) palma (#)
    knuckleball: iactus unguibus (#).
    knuckle curve: iactus unguibus curvatus .(#)

    spitball /spitter: (iactus) sputofer. (Sputofer, -feri (m).)

    pitchout: excursus, -us (m) or excursio, -onis (f); to pitch out: excursum (or excurationem) iacere, or excurro, excurrere (III) excucurri, excursus

    pitch that is
    high: altus.
    low: humilis.
    in the dirt: in humum.
    inside: proximus.
    outside: ultimus.
    on the inside /outside corner: in angulo proximo /ultimo.
    backdoor: per posticum.
    down the middle: in medio.
    behind the batter: post clavatorem.

    wild pitch: iactus indomitus.

    Hold (a runner) on: (cursorem) retineo, retinere (II), retinui, retentus.
    balk: haesitatio, haesitationis (f)



    H. Batting /Clavare:

    (Batting) order /lineup: ordo, ordinis (m) (clavatorum).

    To bat out of order: extra ordinem clavare.
    Proper batter: clavator rectus.
    Improper batter: clavator non rectus /clavator pravus.


    To come (up) to bat: adeo, adiri, adii or adivi, aditus.
    Trip to the plate: aditus, -us (m).

    stance: status, -us (m).
    Open stance: status apertus.
    Closed stance: status clausus.
    Crouched stance: status subsidens. To hit from a crouch: ?subsidenter clavare /e subsidendo clavare?.
    Up in the box: in parte priori finium.
    Back in the box: in parte posteriori finium.
    Away from the plate: procul scutulam.
    Crowding the plate: scutulam stipans.

    choke up: clavam contrahere (contraho, -here (III), contraxi, contractus).

    shorten one's swing: Circumactum contrahere (contraho, -here (III), contraxi, contractus).


    swing: circumactus, -us (m). To swing (the bat): (clavam) circumago, -agere (III), -egi, -actus.

    hit: ictus, -us (m). To hit the ball: pilam icere (ico, icere (III), ici, ictus).

    bunt: pulsus, -us (m). To bunt = pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsus ]

    sacrifice bunt: pulsus sacrificialis
    bunt for a hit: pulsus pro ictu
    drag bunt: pulsus protractus. To drag: protraho, protrahere (III), protraxi, protractus.


    squeeze play: ?lusus biceps?
    suicide squeeze: ?lusus biceps let(h)alis?
    safety squeeze: ?lusus biceps tutus


    fair ball: pila de fas.
    foul ball: pila de nefas.
    foul tip: pila (de nefas) stricta. To tip the ball = pilam stringere (stringo, stringere (III) strinxi, strictus).

    ground ball: pila in solo.
    bounding ball: pila saliens
    line drive: praepes, praepetis (f) or pila praepetis
    fly ball: pila volans
    sacrifice fly: pila volans sacrificialis .

    infield fly: pila volans inagello .

    Infield hit: ictus intra inagellum.
    Texas Leaguer: ictus medianus.
    (Baltimore) chop: resilire, resaliendi (Baltimorensis) (resilio, resilire, resilui or resilii, resultum).
    Flare /blooper /ducksnort:(?pila ab catapulta laxa iacta?


    single: (ictus) simplex.
    double: (ictus) duplex.
    triple: (ictus) triplex.
    home run: cursus domus.

    walk /base on balls: ambulatio, -onis (f) /[i]basis pilis
    (#).
    intentional walk: ambulatio de industria /ambulatio consulta.

    hit batsman: clavator ictus (a iaculatore)

    fault: vitium, -ii (n)
    to pull (one's) head: caput avellere (caput, capitis (n); avello, avellere (III) avulsi, avulsus).
    to put (one's) foot in the bucket: pedem in hama deponere (pes, pedis (m); hama, -ae (f); depono, deponere (III), deposui, depositus).
    hitch in one's swing: hamus in coactu.


    to pull: traho, trahere (III), traxi, tractus.
    pull hitter: clavator trahens.
    dead pull hitter: clavator omnino trahens.

    I. Fielding /Prehendere

    error: erratum, -i (n)

    a catch: captus, -us (m). To catch a ball: pilam capere (capio, capere, cepi, captus)
    to field or to stop a ball: pilam prehendere (prehendo, prehendere (III), prehendi, prehensus).

    tag: tactus, -us (m). To tag (a runner or a base): tango, tangere, tetigi, tactus.

    tag play: lusus tactu
    force: coactus, -us (m). To force (a runner): cursorem cogere (cogo, cogere (III) coegi, coactus). Force play: lusus coactu. To remove the force: coactum removeo, removere (II), removi, remotus.

    Hold (a runner) on: (cursorem) retineo, retinere (II), retinui, retentus.
    Play behind a runner: post cursorem ludere.


    pivot: ?cnodax, -acis (m) /cardo, cardinis (m)? To pivot ??cnodacem /cardinem facere??

    stretch (by firstbaseman): extensio, -onis (f); to stretch: se extendo, extendere (III) extendi, extensum.

    double play: lusus duplex.
    triple play: lusus triplex.

    infield (inagellus):
    in /back proximus /ultimus
    at double-play depth: in positione pro ludo duplici.
    in at the corners: proximus in angulis

    bunt defense: defensus contra pulsum

    to charge (a bunt): (contra pulsum) impetum facere.

    to rotate (as in a bunt defense): roto, rotare, rotavi, rotatus.

    no-doubles defense: positio contra duplices.


    shift: mutatio, -onis (f). To shift: muto, -are, -avi, mutatus. Williams shift: Mutatio Williams /Williamso. Boudreau shift: Mutatio Boudreau/Budrone

    cutoff: interceptio, -onis (f)
    cutoff man: interceptor, oris (c). To hit the cutoff man: interceptorem icere.


    relay: traditio, -onis (f). To make a relay: trado, tradere (III), tradidi, traditus.
    relay man: traditor, -onis (f).


    drop: demitto, demittere (III), demisi, demissus.

    deliberate drop: demissio consulta (demissio, -onis (f)).


    infield chatter: garulitas inagelli (garulitas, -tatis (f)).

    J: Running /Currere:

    lead: initium, -i (n).

    touch (a base) tango, tangere, tetigi, tactus
    tag up /retouch: retango, ere (III), tetigi, tactus

    slide: delapsus, -us (m).
    to slide: delabor, delabi, delapsus.
    straight-in slide: delapsus rectus.
    hook slide: delapsus hamatus.
    pop-up slide: delapsus insurgens.
    fall-away slide: delapsus a basi.
    headfirst slide: delapsus praeceps.

    to pick-off: decarpo, -ere (III) decarpsi, decarptus
    a pickoff: ?? decarptus /decarptura ??
    pickoff play: lusus decarpturae /decarptui.


    hidden-ball trick: dolus pila occulta (dolus, -i (m)).

    angustiae, -arum (f): rundown; pickle.

    K. Catching / Recipere:

    Dropped third stirke: (?laesionem /feritam /straicam?) tertiam demissa.

    Shift:

    Snap throw: iactus citus.

    Jump-pivot: saltus flectens
    Jab step:
    Rock-and-throw:


    L. Signals /Signa:

    to give signs: signa dare
    to put down signs (catcher): signa deponere)
    to put up a stop sign (coach): signum sistendo erigere or statuere (#).
    to take (or get) a sign: signum accipere.
    to miss a sign: a signo (de)errare.
    to steal signs: signa furari.
    to change signs: signa mutare.

    noise: strepitus, -us (m).
    indicator: indicator, -oris (m) /signum indicans.

    on: positum
    off: amotum

    to give (someone) the green light: (alicui) lucem viridem dare.


    M. Umpiring /Arbitratio:

    ejection: eiectio, -onis (f). To eject: eicio, eicere (III), eieci, eiejctus.

    N. Scorekeeping:

    earned run: cursus meritus
    unearned run: cursus non meritus


    O. Things People Say /Dicta:

    Umpires /Arbitri:

    "(Pila)(De) Nefas!": "Foul (Ball)!"

    P. Team-Names /Nomina Manuum(?):

    Athletics: Athletici, Athleticorum (c)
    Cardinals: Cardinales, Cardinalium(c)
    Cubs: Catuli, Catulorum (c).
    Diamondbacks: Spinadamantei (c)
    Dodgers: Elulsores, Elusuorum (c)
    Giants: Gigantes, Gigantum (c).
    Pirates: Piratae, -arum (c).
    Rays: Mantae, -arum.
    Reds: Rubri, Rubrorum (c)
    Senators: Senatores, Senatorum (c)
    Yankees: Ianki, Iankorum (c); singular Iank, Ianki.


    Q. Certain Externals:

    championship / title: titulus, -i (m)

    champions = victores, -rum (m) [Latin word also victors or winners of individual game, series, etc.]


    division: divisio, -onis (f)

    games behind /games out: ludis ulterior; e. g. to be five games out= quinque ludis [ablative] ulterior(es) esse.

    league: liga, -ae (f) /foedus, foederis (n), societas, -atis (f).

    ...American League: Liga Americana.
    ...Carolina League: Liga Carolinensis.
    ...Cape League: Liga Promentarii.
    ...Central League: Liga Centralis
    ...Cuban League: Liga Cubana.
    ...Dominican League: Liga Dominicana.
    ...Eastern League: Liga Orientalis.
    ...Federal League: Foedus Federalis.
    ...independent league: liga suae juris.
    ...International League: Liga Internationalis.
    ...Little League: Liga Parvulorum.
    ...Major League: Liga Maior.
    ...Mexican League: Liga Mexicana.
    ...minor league: liga minor..
    ...National Association: Societas Nationalis.
    ...National Federation of State High School Associations: Foedus Nationale Societatum Scholarum Secondariarum Civitatum.
    ...National League: Liga Nationalis.
    ...Negro Leagues: Ligae Nigrae.
    ...Pacific League : Liga Oceani Pacifici.
    ...Pacific Coast League: Liga Litoris Pacifici.
    ...Player's League: Liga Lusorum.


    pennant= vexillum, -i (n).

    place:

    ...first place: locus primus

    ...second place: locus secundus

    ...last place /basement /cellar: locus postremus / hypogaeum,

    ...to be in first place: locum primum tenere


    series: series, -ei (f). World Series= Series Mundi.

    standings (of the clubs): status manuum


    R. Miscellaneous /Miscellanea:

    trick play: lusus dolosus.

    *************************************************************
    II. Verba in Litteram Digesta /Terms in Alphabetical Order
    Anglice-Latine (English-Latin)

    astroturf: gramen artificiosum.
    Athletics (team-name): Athletici, -orum (m).
    Association = Societas, -tatis (f) /Liga, -ae /Foedus, Foederis (n).
    athletic supporter: subligaculum, -i (n) /subligar, -aris (n) /subligatura, -ae (f).
    ball (both the object and a pitch not a strike): pila, -ae (f).
    base: basis, basis (f).
    baseball (both the ball and the game): basipila, -ae (f). "The game of baseball" more fully expressed: ludus basipilae.
    bat: clava, -ae (f).
    batter: clavator, -oris (c).
    bench: subsellium, -i (n).
    bounding ball: pila saliens.
    bunt: pulsus, -us (m). To bunt = pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsus .
    Cardinals (team-name): Cardinales, Cardinalium (c)
    catch: captus, -us (m). To catch: capio, capere, cepi, captus.
    catcher: receptor, -oris (c).
    center field: (ex)agellus centralis (centralis, -e).
    chatter: garulitas, -tatis (f). Infield chatter: garulitas inagellli.
    chest protector: lorica, -ae (f)
    clicker (umpire's): indicator, -oris (m).
    Cubs: Catuli, -orum (m) (team-name).
    cup: calix, calicis (m).
    dead ball: pila mortua.
    dead pull hitter: clavator omnino trahens.
    designated hitter: clavator designatus. Designated hitter rule: lex clavatoris designati.
    dirt: humus, -i (f).
    dugout: subsellium, -i (n).
    double play: lusus duplex.
    error: erratum, -i (n).
    fair: we convey the idea of "fairness" (as opposed to "foulness") by an indeclinable Latin noun, fas.
    fair ball: pila de fas.
    fair territory: territoria de fas.
    Federation: Foedus, Foederis (n) /Liga, -ae (f) /Societas, -tatis (f).
    field /stop a ball: pilam prehendere (prehendo, prehendere (III), prehendi, prehensus).
    first base: prima basis.
    fly ball: pila volans
    foul: we convey the idea of "foulness" by an indeclinable Latin noun, nefas.
    foul ball: pila de nefas.
    foul line: linea de nefas.
    foul pole: contus de nefas.
    foul territory: territoria de nefas.
    foul tip: pila (de nefas) stricta.
    game: ludus, -i (m).
    Giants (team-name): Gigantes, Gigantum (c) (singular Gigas, Gigantis).
    glove: fielder's or catcher's : chirotheca, -ae (f). Batter's : manica, -ae.
    grass: gramen, graminis (n). Gramen artificiosum = artificial turf.
    ground ball: pila in solo.
    hidden-ball trick: dolus pila occulta (dolus, -i (m)).
    hit: ictus, -us (m). To hit the ball: pilam icere.
    hitter: clavator, -oris (c).
    home: domus, -us (f). Home plate: scutula domus (scutula, -ae (f)).
    indicator (umpire's): indicator, -oris (m).
    infield: inagellus, -i (m).
    infield chatter: garulitas inagelli.
    inning: ingressus, -us (m).
    jockstrap: subligaculum, -i (n) /subligar, -aris (n) /subligatura, -ae (f).
    lead (by baserunner): initium, -i (n).
    league: liga, -ae (f) /foedus, foederis (n) /societas, -tatis (f).
    left field: (ex)agellus sinister (sinister, -tra, -trum).
    live ball: pila viva.
    mitt: chirotheca, -ae (f).
    mound: colliculus, -i (m)
    official scorer: archeota magisterius.
    out (adjective): exitus, -a, -um (perfect passive participle of exeo).
    out (noun): exitum, -i (n).
    outfield: exagellus, -i (m).
    pennant: vexillum, -i (n).
    pickle: angustiae, -arum (f).
    Pirates: Piratae, -arum (m) (team-name).
    pitch: iactus, -us (m) (= throw). To pitch = iacere.
    pitch that is
    high: altus
    low: humilis
    in the dirt: in humum
    inside: proximus
    outside: ultimus
    on the inside /outside corner: in angulo proximo /ultimo
    backdoor: a tergo
    down the middle: in medio
    behind the batter: post clavatorem[/color]
    pitcher: iaculator, -oris (c).
    plate (home plate): scutula domus (scutula, -ae (f)).
    play (term for certain events in the game): lusus, -us (m).
    play (verb): ludo, ludere (III), lusi, lusum.
    player: lusor, -oris (c).
    to pull (the ball): pilam trahere (traho, trahere (III), traxi, tractus).
    pull hitter: clavator trahens. Dead pull hitter: clavator omnino trahens.Reds (team-name): Rubri, Rubrorum (m).
    retouch: retango, ere (III), tetigi, tactus
    right field: (ex)agellus dexter (dexter, -tra, -trum).
    run (the thing scored): cursus, -us (m).
    rundown: angustiae, -arum (f).
    runner: cursor, -oris (c).
    safe: tutus, -a, -um.
    scorer /scorekeeper: archeota, -ae (c). Official scorer: archeota magisterius.
    second base: secunda basis.
    Senators (team-name): Senatores, Senatorum (m).
    series: series, -ei (f)
    shin protectors: ocreae, -arum (f)
    shortstop: brevisistor, -oris (c).
    slide: delapsus, -us (m).
    to slide: delabor, delabi, delapsus.
    fall-away slide: delapsus a basi.
    headfirst slide: delapsus praeceps.
    hook slide: delapsus hamatus.
    pop-up slide: delapsus insurgens.
    straight-in slide: delapsus rectus.
    spitball /spitter: (iactus) sputofer. (Sputofer, -feri (m)).
    stop /field a ball: pilam prehendere (prehendo, prehendere (III), prehendi, prehensus).
    supporter, athletic: subligaculum, -i (n) /subligar, -aris (n) /subligatura, -ae (f).
    swing (the bat): (clavam)circumago, -agere (III), -egi, -actus.
    tag (a runner or a base): tango, tangere (III), tetigi, tactus.
    tag up: retango, retangere (III), retetigi, retactus
    third base: tertia basis.
    throat protector /yeager: iaeger, iaegeri (m)
    throw: iactus, -us (m) (=pitch). To throw = iacere.
    touch (a base): tango, tangere (III), tetigi, tactus.
    triple play: lusus triplex.
    turf (artificial): gramen artificiosum.
    umpire: arbiter. -tri (c).
    walk (base on balls): ambulatio, -onis (f).
    World Series: Series Mundi
    Yeager: Iaeger, Iaegeri (m)


    ***********************************************************
    III. Verba in Litteram Digesta /Terms in Alphabetical Order
    Latine-Anglice (Latin-English)

    agellus, -i (m): a portion of the field, as the outfield, the infield, left field, etc.
    (ex)agellus centralis: center field.
    (ex)agellus dexter: right field.
    (ex)agellus sinister: left field.
    angustiae, -arum (f): rundown /pickle.
    arbiter, -tri (c): umpire.
    archeota: scorer /scorekeeper
    archeota magisterius: official scorer
    ambulatio, -onis (f): walk (base on balls).
    Athletici, -orum (m): Athletics (team-name).
    basipila, -ae (f): baseball (both the ball and the game).
    brevisistor, -oris (c): shrotstop.
    calix, calicis (m): cup.
    capio, capere, cepi, captus(pilam): to catch (a ball).
    captus, -us (m): a catch.
    Cardinales, Cardinalium (c): Cardinals (team-name).
    Catuli, -arum (c): Cubs (team-name).
    chirotheca, -ae (f): glove /mitt of a fielder or catcher.
    circumago, -agere (III), -egi, actus (clavam): to swing (the bat).
    clava, -ae (f): bat.
    clavator, -oris (c): batter; hitter.
    clavator designatus (c): designated hitter. Lex clavatoris designati: designated hitter rule.
    clavator (omnino) trahens: (dead) pull hitter.
    colliculus, -i (m): mound
    contus de nefas: foul pole; (contus, -i (m)).
    cursor, -oris (c): runner.
    cursus, -us (m): run (the thing scored).
    delabor, delabi, delapsus[/i]: to slide.
    delapsus, -us (m): a slide.
    delapsus a basi: fall-away slide.
    delapsus hamatus: hook slide.
    delapsus insurgens: pop-up slide.
    delapsus praeceps: headfirst slide.
    delapsus rectus: straight-in slide.
    domus, -us (f): home.
    dolus pila occulta: hidden-ball trick (dolus, -i (m)).
    erratum, -i (n): error.
    exagellus, -i (m): outfield. See also "agellus" above.
    exitus, -a, -um (ppple of exeo): out (adjective).
    exitum, -i (n): out (noun).
    foedus, foedris (n): league /Federation /Association
    garulitas, -tatis (f): chatter. Garulitas inagelli: infield chatter.
    Gigantes, Gigantum (c): Giants (team-name).
    gramen, graminis (n): grass. Gramen artificiosum = artificial turf /astroturf.
    humus, -i (f): dirt.
    iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus: to pitch or to throw.
    iactus, -us (m): pitch (or throw).
    iactus qui est
    altus: high.
    humilis: low.
    in humum: in the dirt.
    proximus: inside.
    ultimus: outside.
    in angulo proximo /ultimo: on the inside /outside corner.
    a tergo: backdoor.
    in medio: down the middle.
    post clavatorem: behind the batter.
    iactus sputofer: spitball /spitter.
    iaculator, -oris (c): pitcher.
    iaeger, iaegeri (m): throat protector /Yeager.
    ic(i)o, icere, ici, ictus: to hit.
    ictus, -us (m): hit.
    inagellus, -i (m): infield.
    indicator, -oris (m): (umpire's) indicator /clicker.
    ingressus, -us (m): inning.
    initium, -i (n): lead (by baserunner).
    liga, -ae (f): league.
    linea de nefas: foul line
    lorica, -ae (f): chest protector
    ludo, ludere (III), lusi, lusum: to play.
    ludus, -i (m): game.
    lusor, -oris (c): player.
    lusus, -us (m): a play.
    lusus duplex: double play.
    lusus triplex: triple play.
    manica, -ae (clavatoris): batter's glove.
    ocreae, -arum (f): shin protectors.
    pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsus: to bunt.
    pila, -ae (f): ball (both the object and a pitch not a strike).
    pila de fas: fair ball.
    pila de nefas: foul ball.
    pila in solo: ground ball.
    pila mortua: dead ball.
    pila saliens: bounding ball.
    pila (de nefas) stricta: foul tip.
    pila viva: live ball.
    pila volans: fly ball.
    Piratae, -arum: Pirates (team-name)
    prehendo, prehendere (III), prehendi prehensus (pilam): to field /stop (a ball).
    prima (basis): first base.
    pulsus, -us (m). A bunt.
    receptor, -oris (c): catcher.
    retango, retangere (III), retetigi, retactus: to tag up /to retouch.
    Rubri, Rubrorum (c): Reds (team-name).
    scutula, -ae (f): plate.
    scutula domus: home plate.
    secunda (basis): second base.
    Senatores, Senatorum: Senators (team-name).
    series, -ei (f): series. Series Mundi = World Series.
    Societas, -tatis (f): Association /League /Federation.
    sputofer, -feri: spitball /spitter.
    subligaculum, -i (n): (athletic) supporter /jockstrap.
    subligar, -aris (n): (athletic) supporter /jockstrap.
    subligatura, -ae (f): (athletic) supporter /jockstrap.
    subsellium, -i (n): bench; dugout.
    tango, tangere (III), tetigi, tactus: to tag (a runner or a base); to touch (a base).
    tertia (basis): third base.
    territoria de fas: fair territory.
    teritoria de nefas: foul territory.
    traho, trahere (III), traxi, tractus: to pull (the ball). Clavator (omnino) trahens: (dead) pull hitter.
    tutus, -a, um: safe.
    vexillum, -i (n): pennant.
    ***********************************************************

    (#) designates a noun modifying another noun where it is unclear what case the modifier should be in (or whether a preposition should be used).
  3. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    Some further proposed terms:

    Arbiter, arbitri (c): umpire.
    Subsellium, -i (n): bench; dugout.

    It is very tempting to call the mound agger, aggeris (m). I hesitate mostly because I'm not sure what we should call the field, and parts thereof, as the infield and outfield, and I fear confusing agger with ager.

    Expecto responsa vestra, amici mei; I await your responses, my friends.
  4. Cato Consularis

    • Consularis
    Location:
    Chicago, IL
    Tumulus, -i (m.) was the first word that sprang to mind for "mound"; or we could coin collilus, -i - "(little) hill", but I'm not sure I like that one.

    Diminutives may end up being a major part of the nomenclature. ager is just too big for a ballfield, so perhaps agellus. Combining that with the prefixes ex- and in- (or exter- and inter) would give you "infield" and "outfield"; afer all, adding prefixes is what created these terms in English.

    To summarize:

    Tumulus, -i (m.) - "mound"
    agellus, -i (m.) - "field"; exagellus, -i (m.) - "outfield"; inagellus, -i (m.) - "infield"
  5. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    Tumulus makes me think of a burial mound...and there are parks like that, no question. But I see that colliculus occurs in the Florida of Apuleius (I), and I think I prefer that to collilus; what do you think?

    I like agellus very much, for the component parts if not for the field as a whole. I reckon a typical ballfield at about four acres-- is that too small to be an ager, do you think?

    In addition to your inagellus and exagellus we might have agellus sinister, agellus centrus, and agellus dexter?

    But before we add these to the glossary, we should be sure that they provide a reasonable way to say "infielder", "outfielder", "left fielder" and so on.
  6. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    We seem to have stalled with this; I'd like to get it moving.

    If "bat" is clava, then "batter" or "hitter" should be clavator. Beard in fact has lex clavatoris designati for "designated hitter rule"-- so "designated hitter" would be clavator designatus (Hic spuit Iynx in solum, ritu antiquo-- it's not the words I object to, but the thing). Anyone with better ideas on the terms?

    I'm not crazy about it, but how about custos agelli dextris for "right fielder"?
  7. Cato Consularis

    • Consularis
    Location:
    Chicago, IL
    I think clavator is exactly right. I think jaculator (dspite its English connotation) is the only choice for the other side of this matchup; a boastful pitcher would then be a jactans jaculator, a perfect sobriquet for Perdo Martinez...
    It is lengthy; I'd also correct to dextri, as this is a 1st-2nd decl. adjective. It is similar to what is done in French (voltigeur de champ droit); I say keep it.
  8. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    Dextri, of course.

    I think you're right that "pitcher" has to be jaculator. I'm not sure what you mean about the English-- are you concerned because the word looks like "ejaculate" or because it looks like "jack", i. e. home run? It doesn't sound much like either one, though, and if we spell it with an i the visual problem is less apparent.

    Iactare then is "to pitch". I suppose it will also have to serve for "to throw"?

    There seems to be a consensus on clavator; I will add it to the glossary.

    I note that in a post in the Latin-Only Section, Cato, you seem to refer to the game, in the ablative, as fosse basso? Did I understand you correctly? Could you please explain that term a little?
  9. Cato Consularis

    • Consularis
    Location:
    Chicago, IL
    I borrowed this quickly from a dictionary which, surprisingly, had "baseball" - folis bassus as an entry in the English-to-Latin section. On reflection--and after a visit to this Wikipedia page, I'm thinking this is a bad choice. It appears folis - "leather sack" is being used to describe the (formerly) horsehide sphere itself. I agree with the Wikipedia writer that pila is a far superior choice for a number or reasons, not the least of which similar shaped balls in the game of Jai Alai are called (in Spanish) pelota, and the ball was slangily referred to as the "pill" in the 19th century.

    Again from the Wikipedia article, the Vatican's Lexicon Recentis Latinitatis seems to label the game basipila. This article also labels the field a campus, but I'm still a fan of agellus for the individual areas patrolled by the outfielders.

    My concern about jaculator was strictly based on the English cognate, which perhaps shouldn't be as much of a concern as I indicated. I'd also prefer if there was a word separate from jacio or it's derivatives that could be used for "pitch", just as "pitch" and "throw" are distinct in English, but what are you going to do?

    I'm thinking that, whenever this reaches a level where we have a substantial-enough glossary, one of us will have to edit the Wikipedia article. With that far-off goal in mind, let's take a small step by clarifying the infielders: custos primae basis, etc., and perhaps the self-invented brevisistor - "shortstop" (no one quite knows where this term came from, but the prevailing theory as I understand it is that it was originally a fielder positioned close to the plate to stop a ground ball short before it can dribble into the outfield; in older versions of baseball such as townball, basemen were required to touch their base as the pitch was being thrown, making it difficult to field ground balls any other way).
  10. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    Thank you, Cato, for pointing out the Wikpaedia article.

    I see that the LRL does indeed for "baseball" have ludus basipilae, as well as ludus pilae et basium.

    I made up basis-pila a long time ago; it is gratifying to see a similar expression coming out of Rome, and I am not sorry to see my clumsy hyphen go. The second expression, so typical of the ponderous phrases of the LRL, I don't think we need seriously consider, except to note that it gives us a noun for "base":

    basis, basis (f).

    (I think we may discard the Greek genitive [baseos]) here).

    I can imagine a Latin-language announcer describing a headfirst slide: Et basi basium dat, ad tertiam tuto labens...

    But I'm getting way ahead of things.

    I do like tutus for "safe", I think...but then what is "out"? I don't care much for labi as "to slide", but at the moment I can't come up with anything better.

    It would seem that we may be near consensus on other terms as follows:

    Ball (the round object) = pila, pilae (f)
    Baseball = basipila, -ae (f)
    Game = ludus, -i (m)
    Game of baseball = ludus basipilae

    Can "ball" (a pitch not a strike) also be pila?

    I like brevisistor a lot.

    I am hoping for further comment on arbiter, subsellium, and colliculus.
  11. Cato Consularis

    • Consularis
    Location:
    Chicago, IL
    For "out", since this is short for "put out, sent out", I thought exitum would be a good choice for the noun, exitus, -a, -um for the adjective.

    I'm not a huge fan of labi either, especially considering how aggressive a sliding play is. I say we lay this aside for the moment; perhaps a little out-of-the-box thinking will develop a better solution.

    I think this is best. This illustrates to me how well-ingrained the distinction between "ball" (not a strike) and "ball" (spherical object) is after years of living with the game. Though they are the exact same word, I can't think of an instance where I've confused one usage with the other (e.g. the phrase "that's a ball", to me, clearly refers to the non-strike pitch, while "he threw the ball" means hurling the object). I'm hoping that distinction carries over into other languages; I think it has to, so I have no problem using pila for both.

    For "strike", there are a number of choices, and I'm not sure what would be best. My initial reaction is pulsus, -us, as this also carries (from it's original verb pello) the sense of "defeat" yet is not as violent as a term like percussum. However this has the disadvantage of starting with the same letter as pila. Another possibility is tactus, -us, but I fear this is too abstract. I'd also considering ictus, -us, but am wondering if this better in a phrase like basis ictus - "base hit"?

    I think these are fine and would be fairly clear to anyone familiar with Latin.
  12. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    1. There are a few Latin terms that we can, I think, bring in here fairly easily:

    gramen, graminis (n): "grass"
    linea, -ae (f): "line"
    cursor, -oris (c): "runner"

    2. I don't think that digitabulum will do for glove in our context; I think we should use chirotheca, -ae (f).

    3. I was thinking of using ludus, -i for "game" and lusus -us for "play", as in ludus facilis ("easy play") or duplex ludus ("double play"). Thoughts?

    4. There is a small problem with basis for base, namely its inconsistent declension. The consensus seems to be that it should be taken as a pure i-stem, like turris. So to steal a base might be basim furari (and a stolen base basis furata).
  13. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    1. I would like to propose cursus, -us (m) for "run".

    2. I have a suggestion for "fair" and "foul" that may be a bit of a stretch. How about fas for "fair" and nefas for "foul"? I realize that these are substantives, not adjectives. But we could work around this. On a foul-not-caught the Umpire might cry "Nefas!"

    Territoria de nefas = "foul territory"
    Territoria de fas = "fair territory"
    Linea de nefas = "foul line"
    Pila de fas = "fair ball"
    Pila de nefas = "foul ball"
    Contus de nefas = "foul pole" (contus, -i (m))

    I am uncertain about "foul tip".

    3. How about tangere for "to tag"? We might coin retangere for "to reteouch" that is, "to tag up".

    4. More suggestions:

    pila mortua = "dead ball"
    pila viva = "live ball"
    territoria pilae mortuae (or de pila mortua)= "dead-ball territory"
    territoria pilae vivae (or de pila viva) = "live-ball territory"

    e lusione = "out of play"

    lusor, -oris (c) = "player"

    5. For "helmet" I am torn between cassis and galea, but leaning towards the latter; galea clavatoris would be "batter's helmet".
  14. Cato Consularis

    • Consularis
    Location:
    Chicago, IL
    I agree with your suggestions for gramen, linea, cursor, ludus vs. lusis, cursus, and tangere. The last choice would certainly imply retangere = "tag up"

    I think the idea of using fas and nefas is ingenious. I was resistant at first, but then I realized there's no good equivalent for "foul" as it is used in the game. Words like foedus and turpis seem way too harsh, while fair/foul pairs like justus/injustus or commodus/incommodus seem too technical. The idea of a short word like fas! of nefas!--something you could imagine a toga-ed umpire yelling quickly--is a good one.

    For "foul tip", how about pila de nefas stricta?

    Regarding "glove", I suppose chirotheca is the best of some meagre choices. Caestus, -us I thought would be better because in Spanish the glove is referred to (I believe) as a cesta, but this is strictly a boxing glove; I can't find any ambiguous-enough citations to justify it.

    galea is certainly the more common word for "helmet", and I think the more commonplace one (wasn't the cassis a complete metal wrap-arouind job, i.e.e it also covered the face?).

    More ideas:

    ambulatio, -onis - "walk"
    exitum pulsibus - "strikeout"
    pila volata - "fly ball"
    pila in solo - "ground ball"
    conjectus protinus - "line drive" (?)
  15. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    1. Pila de nefas stricta: Fantastic! I hadn't thought of stringo, and I was wracking my brains on this one the other day for most of a 90-mile car trip. To tip the ball will be pilam stringere.

    2. I'm glad you like fas /nefas. It is largely irrelevant to our present discussion, but I can't resist stating my opinion that while an umpire (toga-clad or otherwise) should indeed holler "foul!" (nefas!) on a foul ball, the "correct mechanic" on a fair ball (regardless of what you see in the movies) is for the umpire whose call it is to point into fair territory and to keep his mouth firmly shut. I think you will find near-universal agreement on this point among umpires.

    3. I like pila in solo. I was thinking pila in humo, but I think yours is better. In humo-- or better in humum-- we might reserve for a ball pitched very low, "in the dirt"?

    4. Pila volata: it took me a second, but I get it now; volata is the perfect participle of volare, so we have a "flown ball". Pretty good. Might pila volans be better? Along the same lines, a bounding ball might be pila saliens, and a slow roller pila lente evolvens. Or do we indeed want perfect participles?

    5. "Popup" is tough. I am tempted by exsilio; the trouble is that it is intransitive-- it is only the ball, and not the batter, that could "pop up" with exsilio, I think. We might say pila exsiliens for "a popup" but to say "he popped up" we would have to say something like pilam exsilientem icit, which seems clumsy to me. And what of the common, defensive point-of-view expression "popped him up"? Have to be more formal I suppose, and say "caused him to hit a pop up".

    6. "Strike" continues to be a problem-- our biggest unsolved problem so far, I think. I agree with you that if we use ico /ictus for "hit" (which seems like a good idea to me) then we need another word for "stirke". The only other possible term I can come up with is ferio, and there is no associated noun that I know of. I think that using the infinitive / gerund would be too cumbersome. Perhaps we could coin a IVth-Declension noun feritus, -us for action of striking, that is, a strike? Or, if all else fails, suppose we import the English word?
    Straica, -ae?
  16. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    1. Ambulatio: the word is perfect, Cato, thank you. I'm going to add this one to the glossary. It is true that I dislike the English term (it's a "base on balls" and one should run to first, hard, every time, and take a turn). But our task here is to translate the nomenclature, not to reform it. If "ball" (nonstrike) is to be pila, then I suppose a base on balls might be basis pilis.

    2. Conjectus protinus: the protinus is OK, but doesn't the conjectus make one think of something thrown straight?
  17. Cato Consularis

    • Consularis
    Location:
    Chicago, IL
    Pila volans is better for "fly ball", and pila saliens/pila lente evolvens for "bouncing ball"/"slow roller" are nice. Generally, I think the present participle is better here.

    This illustrates a general problem, as terms in baseball are used far more slangily than classical Latin might like. Do we serve the presumably-Latinate audience who would criticize the transitive use of exsilio as non-classical, or preserve the idea that these terms evolved much like the English ones? "Popped him up" is idiomatic in English as well, but nobody complains about it.

    I'm not quite sure how to handle it, but I'm very tempted to say exsilio would naturally become transitive if it were used in a game played by native Latin speakers over a long period of time, so I'm for coining exsaltus as a part passive participle and allowing both clavator exsilit and [/i]jaculator clavatorem exsilit[/i].

    [/quote]6. "Strike" continues to be a problem-- our biggest unsolved problem so far, I think.
  18. Cato Consularis

    • Consularis
    Location:
    Chicago, IL
    I wasn't really enthused about conjectus, and agree it applies more to something thrown; I'll withdraw it until I think of something better...
  19. Cato Consularis

    • Consularis
    Location:
    Chicago, IL
    A few other ideas:
    • Single, double, triple, home run: I think it's simplest to just use simplex, duplex, triplex as substantives. Borrowing terms already defined, cursus domus - "home run" (domus is objective genitive here).
    • Latinate scorers (archeotae?) could use terms like dilectus custodis - "fielder's choice" and intercessio - "interference".
    • Although erratum, -i seems obvious for "error", thought we'd get some concurrence.
    • This may be extremely minor, but given that caudex, -icis (m.) descibed wax tablets in general and bookkeeping ledgers in particular, this seems a natural choice for "scorecard". Tabula, -ae might do for "scoreboard". However I'm at a loss to come up with anything that conveys the idea of score itself, e.g. how would an ancient Roman ask "What's the score?" - Quanti cursus utris? In this case we may have to allow that the concept of "score" does not directly translate.
    I also think we're at a point where a summary of the agreed glossary is necessary. This thread is getting lengthy and more difficult to follow (hence more intimidating for newbies). I think it would be worthwhile to summarize what we've done and invite newcomers to try a few ideas using the vocabulary already provided in a new thread...I may still be just you & me, but at least it will be a little easier to follow.
  20. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    I have made mutiple edits to the glossary near the top of the thread. It is of course a little behind the discussion. I hope that you will not consider the discussion of any item closed simply because it has made it into the glossary. In an effort to make the thread more accessible, I will, as you have suggested, copy a current version of the glossary here:

    Nomenclatura Ludi Basipilae (Baseball Nomenclature)
    **********************************************************
    I. Verba per Genus (Anglice: Latine) /Terms by Category (English: Latin)

    The Field of Play: Ager (aut Agellus?) Ludi

    bench /dugout: subsellium, -i (n)

    base: basis, basis (f).

    first base: Prima (basis)
    second base: Secunda (basis)
    third base: Tertia (basis)

    territoria de fas: fair territory.
    territoria de nefas: foul territory.
    linea de nefas: foul line.
    contus de nefas: foul pole.

    Ludi Personae: The People of the Game

    player: lusor, -oris (c)

    batter /hitter: clavator, -toris (c)
    designated hitter: clavator designatus.

    runner: cursor, -oris (c)

    shortstop: brevisistor, -oris (c).

    umpire: arbiter, arbitri (c).

    Apparatus: Equipment

    bat: clava, -ae (f).
    ball: pila, -ae (f).

    Res in Ludo: Events in the Game

    hit: ictus, -us (m)
    to hit the ball: pilam icere

    fair ball: pila de fas
    foul ball: pila de nefas
    foul tip: pila (de nefas) stricta

    single: (ictus) simplex
    double: (ictus) duplex
    triple: (ictus) triplex

    run (the thing scored): cursus, -us (m)

    error: erratum, -i (n)

    pitch (or throw): iactus, -us (m)
    to pitch (or to throw): iacere

    Dicta Arbitri: Things An Umpire Says

    "(Pila)(De) Nefas!": "Foul (Ball)!"

    Nomina Manuum(?): Team-Names

    Cubs: Catuli, Catulorum (c).
    Pirates: Piratae, -arum (c).

    *************************************************************
    II. Verba in Litteram Digesta /Terms in Alphabetical Order
    Anglice-Latine (English-Latin)

    ball (both the object and a pitch not a strike): pila, -ae (f).
    base: basis, basis (f).
    baseball (both the ball and the game): basipila, -ae (f). "The game of baseball" more fully expressed: ludus basipilae.
    bat: clava, -ae (f).
    batter: clavator, -oris (c).
    bench: subsellium, -i (n).
    Cubs: Catuli, -orum (c) (team-name).
    designated hitter: clavator designatus. Designated hitter rule: lex clavatoris designati.dugout: subsellium, -i (n).
    fair: we convey the idea of "fairness" (as opposed to "foulness") by an indeclinable Latin noun, fas.
    fair ball: pila de fas.
    fair territory: territoria de fas.
    first base: prima basis.
    foul: we convey the idea of "foulness" by an indeclinable Latin noun, nefas.
    foul ball: pila de nefas.
    foul line: linea de nefas.
    foul pole: contus de nefas.
    foul territory: territoria de nefas.
    foul tip: pila (de nefas) stricta.
    game: ludus, -i (m).
    hit: ictus, -us (m). To hit the ball: pilam icere.
    hitter: clavator, -oris (c).
    Pirates: Piratae, -arum (c) (team-name).
    pitch: iactus, -us (m) (= throw). To pitch = iacere.
    play (term for certain events in the game): lusus, -i.
    player: lusor, -oris (c).
    runner: cursor, -oris (c).
    second base: secunda basis.
    shortstop: brevisistor, -oris (c).
    third base: tertia basis.
    throw: iactus, -us (m) (=pitch). To throw = iacere.
    umpire: arbiter. -tri (c).
    walk (base on balls): ambulatio, -onis (f).


    ***********************************************************
    III. Verba in Litteram Digesta /Terms in Alphabetical Order
    Latine-Anglice (Latin-English)

    arbiter, -tri (c): umpire.
    ambulatio, -onis (f): walk (base on balls).
    basipila, -ae (f): baseball (both the ball and the game).
    brevisistor, -oris (m): shrotstop.
    Catuli, -arum (c): Cubs (team-name)
    clava, -ae (f): bat.
    clavator, -oris (c): batter; hitter.
    clavator designatus (c): designated hitter. Lex clavatoris designati: designated hitter rule.
    contus de nefas: foul pole; (contus, -i (m)).
    cursor, -oris (c): runner.
    erratum, -i (n): error.
    iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus: to pitch or to throw.
    ic(i)o, icere, ici, ictus: to hit.
    ictus, -us (m): hit
    linea de nefas: foul line
    lusor, -oris (c): player.
    pila, -ae (f): ball (both the object and a pitch not a strike).
    pila de fas: fair ball.
    pila de nefas: foul ball.
    pila (de nefas) stricta: foul tip.
    Piratae, -arum: Pirates (team-name)
    prima (basis): first base.
    secunda (basis): second base.
    subsellium, -i (n): bench; dugout.
    tertia (basis): third base.
    territoria de fas: fair territory
    teritoria de nefas: foul territory

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