Iuno a Romanis regina deum apellabatur

By Anonymous, in 'Latin to English Translation', Apr 7, 2008.

  1. Anonymous Guest

    Hello, I'm sorry to bother you with this simple sentence, but since I have no teacher of Latin, I don't have anyone to recourse to. Many thanks in advance for your translation of Iuno a Romanis regina deum apellabatur.
  2. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    I think this must mean

    Juno was called the queen of the gods by the Romans.

    The tricky part here is the deum, which I think must be an (irregular) genitive plural.
  3. Your translation also comes across another problem because regina is also either nominative or ablative and therefore does not fit in the position as object of the sentence. Where as if deum is from deus it would be accusative and therefore would fit the place of object. Therefore Juno was being called a god by the Romans. The question is where does regina fit in the sentence. It could possibly be used as ablative of description meaning: "Juno the queen was being called a god by the Romans." It also does not make much sense that is is using masculine Deum instead of the feminine Deam.
  4. QMF Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Virginia, US
    I think Iynx has given an adequate clarification that deum here is the contracted form of deorum, making "regina deum" equivalent to "queen of the gods." This is a very common poetic contraction, in part because it is very metrically convenient in dactylic hexameter (which is probably the most prevalent Latin meter).
  5. skinnylizard77 New Member

    I think regina is a predicate nominative here, but I don't have my grammar book with me and cannot verify that.
  6. Thanks that clears it up for me. Deum is the contracted form of deorum for poetical meter and regina is predicate nominative with the use of the passive form of appello (1).
  7. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    I think that Caesar deserves some explanation of the case of regina here. It is after all easy to find examples in which both that which is called and the name which it is called are in the accusative:

    ...fruges "Cererem" applellamus, vinum "Liberum"...

    (Cicero, de Natura Deorum ii: 60)

    But it ain't necessarily so. Sometimes, especially in passive constructions, a nominative is found, as in De Bello Gallico, vii: 4 (of Vercingetorix):

    Rex ab suis appellatur. ("He was called king by his people").

    I suppose this could be considered a predicate nominative, though I vaguely remember being taught to call it something else-- the nominative apellative, I think?

    In any case, I think that J. C.'s thinking on this point was sound-- but I also think that regina, in the nominative, is not incorrect here.
  8. Imber Ranae Ranunculus Iracundus

    • Civis Illustris
    I've never heard it called anything other than predicate nominative, but yes: verbs of naming govern the same case for both the person or thing named and the name itself. Thus if the verb is active, the sentence has two accusatives (one direct object, the other object predicate); if passive, as here, two nominatives (one subject, the other subject predicate).
  9. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    I think you're explanation is better and clearer than mine, Imber Ranae-- but it doesn't cover one sort of nominative that I was trying to include.

    The underlying idea is that a nomen is ordinarily named by its nominative. An example of the construction to which I refer may be found in a passage from Harrius Potter et Camera Secretorum (p. 92):

    Malfoy eam "Lutosanguinis" appellavit, Hagrid...

    Lutosanguinis, not lutosanguinem. I can't find a clear active-voice example from the days before quotation marks, but I think that such a construction would have been correct then, too, don't you?
  10. Thanks for your explanations. I know that with specific words like call and appoint the predicate nominative is used rather than the direct object. That grammar rule just slipped my mind as I read through it and it did not make sense to me that they had shortened deorum to deum. Thanks for all your exlanations. Other examples would be - Caesar dux factus est. And Perfidus ab oratore apellatur.
  11. Imber Ranae Ranunculus Iracundus

    • Civis Illustris
    Iynx: I don't recall ever seeing the nominative used that way (other than your example), but I can't say it's wrong. I just don't know. I think perhaps the quotation marks here indicate direct speech, in which case using the nominative makes sense. Whether direct speech is ever used with such verbs classically, I'm not sure. It's certainly possible.

    Iulius Caesar: The shortening of -orum to -um, as far as I can remember, is only common with the words "deus" and "superi" (literally "those above", also referring to the gods) in classical prose. You will still see "deorum", however. I think these forms are only especially common in titles, like "regina deum" and "rex deum", and in some other fixed expressions, so you need not be too consternated by yet another Latin irregularity. (unless you're reading poetry, of course!)

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