1. Pacifica grammaticissima

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Belgium
    Quom for the preposition cum is considered erroneous, I think, though it occurs in some inscriptions and MSs by confusion with the conjunction quom/cum.
    This verb is most of the time intransitive, and is so here.
    Litterae in this sense usually translates to the singular "letter" and, vice versa, "letter" in this sense normally translates to the plural in Latin. That's because a letter (brought by a messenger) is made up of many letters (of the alphabet).
    Pretty much always "from", really, except when used before the agent of a passive verb, where it translates to "by" (as in Caesar a coniuratis interfectus est, "Caesar was killed by conspirators"). "Of" isn't a usual translation of a(b), though I guess there may be some exceptions (I know there are in medieval Latin).
    The former. The ablative of Iulia would be Iulia (with a long a).
    See above regarding "letters" and "Julia". "Forth" seems unnecessary. The rest is correct.
  2. Pacifica grammaticissima

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Belgium
    Translate: "The soldier, angry with the priest, ran into the temple."
  3. R. Seltza Active Member

    Location:
    Terra Solis Lapsi
    Though quom isn't as technically correct as cum, it's often preferred when one wants an alternative, especially if they're from an English-speaking country.
  4. R. Seltza Active Member

    Location:
    Terra Solis Lapsi
    I'm going to have to go for a bit. I'll translate the next one when I get back.
  5. R. Seltza Active Member

    Location:
    Terra Solis Lapsi
    "The soldier, angry with the priest, ran into the temple."

    [The] Soldier – Singular Noun – Nominative (Sentence Subject) - Miles
    ,
    Angry – Adjective – CNG Agreement with Miles - Iratus
    With – Preposition – Indeclinable – Cum/Quom (We may be able to just drop this one)
    [The] Priest – Singular Noun – Prepositional Object / Ablative (by PCR) Sacerdote
    ,
    Ran – Intransitive Verb – 3rd Person Singular Active Indicative – Perfect - Cucurrit
    Into – Preposition – Indeclinable – In (With Accusative PCR in this case)
    [The] Temple – Singular Noun – Prepositional Object – Accusative by PCR - Templum

    So the translation would be miles, iratus [cum/quom] sacerdote, in templum cucurrit.
    I have a feeling that something is off with my translation of “Angry”.
  6. Pacifica grammaticissima

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Belgium
    Something is off with what follows iratus. Iratus doesn't take cum + abl., nor the abl. alone, but the dative, so iratus sacerdoti.

    The rest is correct.

    Translate:

    Lesbia gave Catullus a thousand kisses.
  7. R. Seltza Active Member

    Location:
    Terra Solis Lapsi
    Why does iratus make sacerdos dative?

    Is there another use of the Dative case other than what I already know it's used for (i.e. - to/for, indirect objects, Dative of possession)? Is this some kind of strange reverse indirect object or something?
  8. Pacifica grammaticissima

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Belgium
    Well, to make it simple, let's just say that some verbs* and adjectives take the dative and you'll learn those as you come across them.

    *Note that iratus is basically the perfect passive participle of irascor, which, naturally, takes the dative in its other forms too.

    The most basic function of the dative is to denote the person affected or concerned by some action, the person to/for/towards whom something is done. With irascor, the person you're angry with is affected/concerned by that action, so the dative makes sense.

    If you wish to learn about the various uses of the dative in one go, I suppose you can look it up in some grammar. Otherwise, you'll come across them eventually anyway, if you go on studying.
  9. R. Seltza Active Member

    Location:
    Terra Solis Lapsi
    “Lesbia gave Catullus a thousand kisses.”

    Lesbia – Singular Noun – Sentence Subject – A Woman’s Name – Nominative - Lesbia
    Gave – Transitive Verb – 3rd Person Singular – Active Indicative – Perfect (We love the Perfect tense lol) - Dedit
    Catullus – Singular Noun – Sentence Object – A Guy’s Name (of course) – Accusative - Catullum
    [A/One] Thousand – Numeral – Indeclinable – Singular - Mille
    Kisses – Plural Noun – Indirect Object – Dative – Osculis

    So the translation is Lesbia dedit Catullum osculis mille.
  10. Pacifica grammaticissima

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Belgium
    You've got the direct and indirect objects mixed up. A trick to find out which is the indirect object is to rephrase the sentence using "to". You can rephrase "Lesbia gave Catullus a thousand kisses" as "Lesbia gave a thousand kisses to Catullus" but not as "Lesbia gave Catullus to a thousand kisses"; therefore "Catullus", not "a thousand kisses", is the indirect object.

    Translate to English:

    Servus dominum veneno interficere temptavit.
  11. R. Seltza Active Member

    Location:
    Terra Solis Lapsi
    Servus dominum veneno interficere temptavit.”

    Servus – Singular Noun – Sentence Subject – Nominative – “[A/The] Servant”
    Dominum – Singular Noun – Sentence Object – Accusative – “[The] Master”
    Veneno – Singular Noun – Most Likely Ablative (Maybe Dative) – Prepositional Object – “With Poison”
    Interficere – Transitive Verb – Infinitive – Present Active – “To Kill”
    Temptavit – Transitive Verb – 3rd Person Active Indicative – Perfect (again, our favorite tense lol) – “Tried”

    So the translation would be "[A/The] servant tried to kill the master with poison."

    An alternate interpretation could be "[A/The] servant tried to kill the master for poison" (as in the servant wants to obtain poison but needs to kill their master to get it.
  12. Pacifica grammaticissima

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Belgium
    "With poison" is correct (veneno being an ablative of means, aka instrumental ablative).

    Your second interpretation is not possible. Not only is the meaning unlikely, but even the grammar wouldn't work. The dative isn't used for that sort of "for". You could use pro + ablative or genitive + causa.
  13. Pacifica grammaticissima

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    Belgium
    Translate:

    Aegyptum antiquis temporibus Pharaones regebant.
  14. Dantius Homo Sapiens

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    in orbe lacteo
    What does this stand for?
  15. R. Seltza Active Member

    Location:
    Terra Solis Lapsi
    Aegyptum antiquis temporibus Pharaones regebant.”

    Aegyptum – Singular Noun (Direct Object) – Accusative Case (& Poetic According to L&S) – “Egypt”
    Antiquis – Adjective – Must Agree With Temporibus – “Ancient”
    Temporibus – Plural Noun - Ablative Case – “[In] Times”
    Pharaones – [Not even L&S could find this one] – I Know You’re Probably Trying to Say Something Along The Lines of “Pharaoh” or Maybe “Pharaohs”
    Regebant – Transitive Verb – 3rd Person Plural – Active Indicative – Imperfect – “Was/Were Ruling”

    So, the translation would probably be “Pharaoh/Pharaohs were ruling Egypt in ancient times.”


    PCR means “Prepositional Case Requirement”.

    Basically,
    in + [(ablative) ← This is the PCR]
    super + [(accusative) ← same idea]

    I know that it’s probably not a correct technical term but it’s how I like to denote the idea.
    Last edited by R. Seltza, Jan 31, 2019
  16. Dantius Homo Sapiens

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    in orbe lacteo

    Actually, L&S does have Pharao.
    Screen Shot 2019-01-31 at 7.43.34 PM.png

    But even if you didn't know the word, the plural verb regebant indicates that it must be "Pharaohs".
  17. Dantius Homo Sapiens

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    in orbe lacteo
    There's nothing poetic about Aegyptum. What website are you using to access L&S?
  18. R. Seltza Active Member

    Location:
    Terra Solis Lapsi
  19. R. Seltza Active Member

    Location:
    Terra Solis Lapsi
    Strange... when I typed in Pharaones, it doesn't find anything.
    Ordinarily, whenever I type an inflected version of a word, it still finds it no problem.
  20. Dantius Homo Sapiens

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    in orbe lacteo
    The perseus website is problematic. It finds no results for vir, for instance. It has strange gaps. I prefer http://athirdway.com/glossa/
    It doesn't accept inflected forms, but as you're typing it will bring up suggestions so it's still very easy to find the right word.

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