Of the arithmetic operations/De operationibus arithmethicis.

By Hermes Trismegistus, in 'English to Latin Translation', Sep 5, 2017.

  1. Hermes Trismegistus Member

    Location:
    Brasilia
    But how to read them in Latin?
    Duo ...tres ... quinque. how we say in english: two plus three equals/is five and so on..
    plus
    minus
    times/multipled by
    divided by
    Last edited by Hermes Trismegistus, Sep 5, 2017
  2. Dantius Homo Sapiens

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    in orbe lacteo
    The Romans didn't really do that kind of math, so anything you say will probably be modern terminology. I don't know if there are standard neologisms for these, but for addition I would say either:
    duo et tres sunt quinque or duo, additis tribus, sunt quinque (abl. absolute, "with three having been added")
    for subtraction, I guess:
    quinque, subtractis/detractis tribus, sunt duo (another abl. abs.)
    I don't know how I would do multiplication or division. It's really not necessary to know in order to read actual Latin.
  3. Mafalda Member

    Location:
    Paulopolis
    2 + 3 = 5 duo et tres sunt quinque / duo et tres quinque
    5 - 3 = 2 tres de quinque sunt duo / quinque minus tres sunt duo
    2 × 3 = 6 duo multiplicatum per tres sunt sex / bis terna sex / bis trina sex
    6 : 3 = 2 sex divisum per tres sunt duo
    Dantius likes this.
  4. Dantius Homo Sapiens

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    in orbe lacteo
    Ah, those are all good ways to do them. For multiplication the second and third options (using an adverb + distributive numberal) are the most classical way.
  5. Cinefactus Censor

    • Censor
    Location:
    litore aureo
    At the Schola Latina this year it was suggested we do times tables as:
    bis trina est sex
  6. Dantius Homo Sapiens

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    in orbe lacteo
    It seems like sunt would make more sense, as both trina and sex are plural, technically. But other than that that's the most classical way to do them.
  7. scrabulista Consul

    • Consul
    Location:
    Tennessee
  8. Hermes Trismegistus Member

    Location:
    Brasilia
    Bis bina sunt quattuor. but why "bina"? neuter plural?
  9. Dantius Homo Sapiens

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    in orbe lacteo
    There's no other gender and number that makes more sense, because we're not talking about masculine people, or things that happen to be masculine, we're just talking about two things in general. Unless you mean why "bina" instead of "duo", in which case it's just a thing in Latin that multiplication is expressed with an adverb (bis) and a distributive numeral, in this case "bina".
  10. Hermes Trismegistus Member

    Location:
    Brasilia

    Once we're talking about numbers, i.d., neuter genders, so it is (2 + 3 = 5) " Duo et tria sunt quinque" , (5 - 3 = 2) tria de quinque sunt duo, (6 : 3 = 2) sex divisum per tria sunt duo. Is my guess right?!


    Duo, addita tribus, sunt quinque (2 + 3 = 5) with the ablative absolute.. and so on.
    Last edited by Hermes Trismegistus, Sep 8, 2017
  11. Dantius Homo Sapiens

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    in orbe lacteo
    Yes, neuter. However I would say that instead of divisum it should be divisa in the plural, because that makes more sense. Other than that you are right.

    With the ablative absolute it would have to be "additis" in the ablative. However the ablative absolute is just something I came up with, there's no evidence that I know of for that construction actually being used for arithmetic, so I don't think you really need to learn it here.
  12. rothbard Civis Illustris

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    London
    The following passage from Augustine's Confessions (1.13,22), about his school days, may be of interest:

    "peccabam ergo puer cum illa inania istis utilioribus amore praeponebam, vel potius ista oderam, illa amabam. iam vero unum et unum duo, duo et duo quattuor, odiosa cantio mihi erat, et dulcissimum spectaculum vanitatis, equus ligneus plenus armatis et Troiae incendium atque ipsius umbra Creusae."
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  13. Dantius Homo Sapiens

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    in orbe lacteo
    So that confirms two things: et is the standard usage for addition, and neuter is the standard gender. Thanks!
  14. Hermes Trismegistus Member

    Location:
    Brasilia
    I was thinking about this 5 - 3 = 2 tres de quinque sunt duo, if it were 2-3 = 1 it'd be Duo de tribus unum. is it ok?

    2 + 3 = 5 Duo et tria sunt quinque / duo et tria quinque
    5 - 3 = 2 Tria de quinque (sunt) duo / quinque minus tria (sunt) duo
    2 × 3 = 6 Duo multiplicata per tria (sunt) sex / bis terna sex / bis trina sex
    6 : 3 = 2 sex divisa per tria (sunt) duo
  15. Dantius Homo Sapiens

    • Civis Illustris
    Location:
    in orbe lacteo
    Yes. quinque minus tria sunt duo seems weird to me. It's definitely strange grammar in classical Latin, so I would prefer the first version (tria de quinque) personally.

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