Perfect Tense Verbs - "he has roused" &c

By fargo, in 'English to Latin Translation', May 18, 2006.

  1. fargo New Member

    Can some one translate the following english phrases to one latin word?i really have a difficult time with those perfect tense verbs.Any help is appreciated. :D

    1.he has roused
    2.she ordered
    3.they have hurried
    4.they stood
    5.he did not know
    6.she did hinder
    7.he fled
    8.they have held(teneo)
    9.it did drag
    10.they have thrown
  2. Iynx Consularis

    • Consularis
    The perfect (indicative active) is easy, as Latin tenses go. Everything you need to know can be summed up in two sentences:

    1. Get the perfect stem by lopping the -i off the third principal part.
    2. Add personal endings as follows: -i, -isti, -it, -imus, -istis, -erunt.

    That's it. Same for all Conjugations, and generally for irregular verbs as well.

    So for "they have hurried" I would look up a word for "hurry" (if I didn't already know one-- one of my favorite Latin proverbs is Festina Lente). In the dictionary I find (in one form or another) the four pricipal parts:

    Festino, festinare, festinavi, festinatus /um.

    We care here about the 3rd. Removing the -i, we have festinav-. Adding the appropriate ending for the third person plural, we get

    festinaverunt

    Simili modo, once I know that the third part of fugere is fugi (and if I don't know I can look it up), I have only to add -it to fug- to get "he hath fled"

    fugit

    A special problem arises with fugere: the perfect indicative active form is (almost) the same (for this verb) as the present indicative active form, but not quite. Your dictionary should tell you that the u in the third principal part is long, while those in the other parts are short. So fugit (long u) means "he hath fled" while "fugit" (short u) means "he doth flee".
    If you encounter the Latin word without quantity-markings, you can only tell the two apart by context.

    (I've always said that it's hard to understand how a people who spoke like that could possibly have invented concrete and have conquered the Mediterranean basin).

    I've done two of these for you. I hope this will show you how to do the rest, and you will likely profit from cranking them through. Pax tecum, amice.
  3. fargo New Member

    WOW, thank you so much. :D truly appreciate it

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