Aeneid - Book XII

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Well, I can say it feels really weird starting the last book. And it doesn't feel like it's been four years since I started working on the first book. I doubt this thing will ever see the light of day, but it's something I'm damn proud of. And since it's the last one, I thought I might as well do some notes like I did for a couple other books. They're probably more for my benefit, but hopefully they can give others a little amusement.

Using Tarrant's commentary, which is the most impressive Cambridge Aeneid commentary in terms of length. To be expected since it's the most recent (and this book is the longest).
 

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Lines 1-53:

- infractos adverso Marte Latinos (1): chiasmus stressing the broken nature of the Latins, with war between them.
- promissa reposci (2): cf. responsa reposcit (11.240).
- implacabilis (3): cf. implacata Charybdis (3.420); pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Dianae (7.764).
- attollitque animos (4): cf. ultro animos tollit dictis (9.127); animosque ad sidera tollunt (9.637); animos tamen omine tollit (10.250).
- saucius ille gravi venantum vulnere pectus (5): cf. saucius. illum ardens infesto vulnere Pyrrhus (2.529); at regina gravi iamdudum saucia cura (4.1).
- tum demum (6): cf. 6.330/573, 9.815.
- excutiens cervice (7): cf. qualis mugitus, fugit cum saucius aram /
taurus et incertam excussit cervice securim (2.223-4).
- impavidus (8): cf. 10.717, of Mezentius; impavidos (8.633, of Romulus and Remus).
- frangit telum (8): cf. frange manu telum Phrygii praedonis (11.484).
- fremit ore cruento (8): cf. 9.341; fremet horridus ore cruento (1.296); terram hostilem moriens petit ore cruento (10.489).
- tum sic adfatur regem atque ita turbidus infit (10): cf. sic adeo insistit secumque ita corde volutat (4.533)
- nulla mora (11): cf. iam iam nulla mora est (2.701).
- pepigere (12): cf. bis senos pepigere dies (11.133).
- fer sacra (13): cf. sacra Dionaeae matri divisque ferebam (3.19)
- aut hac Dardanium dextra sub Tartara mittam (14): cf. alias sub Tartara tristia mittit (4.243); et regem hac Erulum dextra sub Tartara misi (8.563); et quos mille die victor sub Tartara misi (11.397).
- crimen commune refellam (16): cf. neque te teneo neque dicta refello (4.380)
- cedat Lavinia coniunx (17): cf. patrio Andromachen iterum cessisse marito (3.297).
- olli sedato respondit corde Latinus (18): cf. olli subridens sedato pectore Turnus (9.740).
- praestans animi (19): cf. fidens animi (2.61); amens animi (4.203); inops animi (4.300); infelix animi (4.529); furens animi (5.202); animi maturus (9.246); egregiusque animi (11.417).
- exsuperas (20): cf. exsuperatque iugum silvaque evadit opaca (11.905, of Aeneas).
- omnis metuentem expendere casus (21): cf. infanda per orbem / supplicia et scelerum poenas expendimus omnes (11.257-8).
- sunt tibi regna patris Dauni, sunt oppida capta (22): cf. est Paphus Idaliumque tibi, sunt alta Cythera (10.86).
- sunt aliae innuptae Latio et Laurentibus arvis (24): cf. delectos Latio et Laurentibus agris (11.431).
- simul hoc animo hauri (26): cf. animo spem turbidus hausit inanem (10.648).
- me natam nulli veterum sociare procorum (27): cf. ne pete conubiis natam sociare Latinis (7.96).
- victus... / ...lacrimis (29-30): cf. num lacrimas victus dedit aut miseratus amantem est? (4.370).
- vincla...rupi / ...eripui (30-1): cf. eripui, fateor, leto me et vincula rupi (2.134); nodos et vincula linea rupit (5.510); qui vincula rupit (5.543); fluvium vinclis innaret Cloelia ruptis (8.651); continuo puppes abrumpunt vincula ripis (9.118); rupimus invitae tua vincula (9.233); qualis ubi abruptis fugit praesepia vinclis (11.492).
- arma impia sumpsi (31): cf. quique arma secuti / impia (6.612-3).
- quantos primus patiare labores (33): cf. Turne, tot incassum fusos patiere labores (7.421).
- bis...victi (34): cf. bis capti Phryges (9.599).
- nostro Thybrina fluenta / sanguine (35-6): chiasmus reinforcing the extent of the bloodshed, with the key word in enjambment.
- campique ingentes ossibus albent (36): cf. difficilis quondam multorumque ossibus albos (5.865).
- quo referor totiens? quae mentem insania mutat? (37): cf. quid loquor? aut ubi sum? quae mentem insania mutat? (4.595, from Dido).
- Turno exstincto (38): cf. Geryone exstincto (7.662).
- ascire (38): cf. Dardanium Aenean generumque asciverit urbi (11.472).
- consanguinei Rutuli (40): cf. consanguineo...Acestae (5.771); consanguineus Leti Sopor (6.278); consanguineo...Turno (7.366).
- natam et conubia nostra petentem (42): cf. 4.213-4; 4.316; Nomadumque petam conubia supplex (4.535); ne pete conubiis natam sociare Latinis (7.96); quantum in conubio natae thalamoque moratur (7.253); en qui nostra sibi bello conubia poscunt! (9.600)
- respice res bello varias (43): cf. Ascanium surgentem et spes heredis Iuli / respice (4.274-5, Mercury to Aeneas); respice ad haec (7.454, Allecto to Turnus).
- exsuperat magis aegrescitque medendo (46): cf. exsuperant flammae (2.759); ardescitque tuendo (1.713, of Dido).
- sic institit ore (47): cf. sic adeo insistit (4.533).
- quam pro me curam geris (48): cf. ante annos animumque gerens curamque virilem (9.311).
- letumque sinas pro laude pacisci (49): cf. vitamque volunt pro laude pacisci (5.230).
- debile (50): cf. amissis remis atque ordine debilis uno (5.271).
- nostro sequitur de vulnere sanguis (51): cf. ater et alterius sequitur de cortice sanguis (3.33).
- vanis sese occulat umbris (53): cf. classem in convexo nemorum sub rupe cavata / arboribus clausam circum atque horrentibus umbris / occulit (1.310-2).
 

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Lines 54-112:

- at regina nova pugnae conterrita sorte (54): synchysis stressing its effect on Amata.
- moritura tenebat (55): cf. moritura tenet (4.308, of Dido).
- per has ego te lacrimas (56): speaker and listener between tears; cf. per ego has lacrimas (4.314, said by Dido).
- lines 56-9: five forms of tu in four lines to show how much Turnus is valued.
- per si quis Amatae / tangit honos animum (56-7): cf. per si qua est quae restet adhuc mortalibus usquam / intemerata fides (2.142f.); si qua piis animis manet infelicis Amatae / gratia (7.401); per si qua est victis venia hostibus (10.903); mentem mortalia tangunt (1.462).
- senectae / tu requies miserae (57f.): cf. tune ille senectae / sera meae requies (9.481f.).
- in te omnis domus inclinata recumbit (59): cf. it cruor inque umeros cervix conlapsa recumbit (9.434); prona trahit penitusque vadis inlisa recumbit (9.713).
- unum oro (60): cf. 6.106; 9.284.
- desiste (60): cf. mene incepto desistere victam (1.37, said by Juno); tempus desistere pugnae (10.441, said by Turnus).
- qui te cumque manent isto certamine casus (61): cf. quae me cumque vocant terrae (1.610); quo res cumque cadent (2.709); quo te cumque lacus miserantem incommoda nostra (8.74); qua se cumque furens medio tulit agmine virgo (11.762).
- nec generum Aenean captiva videbo (63): cf. non ego Myrmidonum sedes Dolopumue superbas / aspiciam aut Grais servitum matribus ibo (2.785-6).
- cui plurimus ignem (65): cf. cui plurima mento (6.299).
- ignem / subiecit (65f.): cf. subiectisque ignibus (11.186).
- rubor et calefacta per ora cucurrit (66): cf. calor et labefacta per ossa cucurrit (8.390).
- sanguineo... / ...rubent (67-8): cf. si quando nocte cometae / sanguinei lugubre rubent (10.272f.).
- talis virgo (69): cf. talis erat Dido (1.503).
- figitque in virgine vultus (70): cf. Turnus ad haec oculos horrenda in virgine fixus (11.507).
- ardet in arma (71): cf. quos ubi confertos ardere in proelia vidi (2.347).
- quaeso (72): cf. at vos, o superi, et divum tu maxime rector / Iuppiter, Arcadii, quaeso, miserescite regis (8.572f.).
- lacrimis... / prosequere (72-3): cf. prosequitur dictis (6.898); prosequitur votis (9.310).
- omine tanto (72): cf. omina tanta (9.21).
- nuntius haec, Idmon, Phrygio mea dicta tyranno / haud placitura refer (75f.): cf. haec laetus longaevo dicta parenti / haud dubitanda refer (3.169f.).
- Phrygio...tyranno (75): cf. Laurentis...tyranni (7.342, of Latinus).
- cum primum crastina (76): cf. et lux cum primum terris se crastina reddet (8.170).
- puniceis invecta rotis Aurora rubebit (77): synchysis; also, cf. puniceis ibant evincti tempora taenis (5.269); caeloque invectus aperto (1.155); saeva Iovis coniunx aurasque invecta tenebat (7.287).
- non Teucros agat in Rutulos (78): cf. Tros Rutulusne fuat (10.108).
- Teucrum arma quiescant (78): cf. gravia arma quiescunt (10.836).
- dirimamus (79): cf. proelia voce diremit (5.467); quattuor in medio dirimit plaga solis iniqui (7.227).
- illo quaeratur coniunx Lavinia campo (80): chiasmus setting the stage, with Lavinia awaiting the winner.
- haec ubi dicta dedit (81): cf. 2.790; 6.628; 7.323; 7.471; 8.541; 10.633.
- in tecta recessit (81): cf. in ventos vita recessit (4.705, of Dido's death).
- Pilumno (83): cf. luco tum forte parentis / Pilumni Turnus sacrata valle sedebat (9.3f.).
- quos ipsa decus dedit Orithyia (83): cf. quas ipsa decus sibi dia Camilla delegit (11.657).
- candore nives (84): cf. candore nivali (3.538).
- pectora plausa cavis et colla comantia pectunt (86): heavy alliteration of p and c; and chiasmus from the previous line.
- auro squalentem (87): cf. per tunicam squalentem auro latus haurit apertum (10.314).
- circumdat loricam umeris (88): cf. circumdat nequiquam umeris et inutile ferrum (2.510, of Priam).
- aptat habendo (88): cf. habilem aptarat (9.305).
- rubrae cornua cristae (89): cf. cristaque tegit galea aurea rubra (9.50, also of Turnus).
- ensem quem Dauno ignipotens deus ipse parenti / fecerat (90f.): cf. fecerat ignipotens (8.628/710, of the events on Aeneas' shield).
- Stygia...unda (91): cf. 6.385; Stygiis...undis (3.215); Stygias...ad undas (7.773).
- mediis... / aedibus (92f.): cf. aedibus in mediis nudoque sub aetheris axe (2.512); congressi iungunt dextras mediisque residunt / aedibus et licito tandem sermone fruuntur (8.467f.).
- ingenti...columnae (92): cf. porta adversa ingens solidoque adamante columnae (6.552); tectum augustum, ingens, centum sublime columnis (7.170).
- aedibus astabat, validam vi corripit hastam (93): assonance of a; also, cf. haec memorans prima infensum vi corripit ignem (5.641); tum magnam corripit hastam (10.335, of Aeneas).
- vociferans (95): cf. talia vociferans (10.651, of Turnus yelling after Aeneas' specter).
- o numquam (95): cf. o numquam dolituri (11.732).
- frustrata (95): cf. inceptus clamor frustratur hiantis (6.493, of shades in the underworld).
- lacerare (98): cf. quid miserum, Aenea, laceras? (3.41).
- semiviri Phrygis et foedare in pulvere crinis / vibratos calido ferro murraque madentis (99f.): cf. et nunc ille Paris cum semiviro comitatu, / Maeonia mentum mitra crinemque madentem (4.215f.).
- his agitur furiis (101): cf. heu furiis incensa feror! (4.376, of Dido); furiisque accensas pectore matres (7.392); hic vero Alcidae furiis exarserat (8.219); ergo omnis furiis surrexit Etruria iustis (8.494); Cassandrae impulsus furiis (10.68, said by Juno of Aeneas).
- totoque ardentis ab ore / scintillae absistunt (101f.): cf. ac primum silici scintillam excudit Achates (1.174); totoque absistite luco (6.259).
- oculis micat acribus ignis (102): cf. crebris micat ignibus aether (1.90)
- lines 103-6: cf. 2.223f.
- irasci (104): cf. nec cuiquam irasci propiusve accedere virtus (10.712).
- arboris obnixus trunco (105): cf. arboris acclinis trunco (10.835, of the dying Mezentius).
- nec minus interea (107): cf. 7.572.
- maternis saevus in armis (107): cf. maternas...avis (6.193); saevum Aenean agnovit Turnus in armis (11.910).
- Aeneas acuit Martem et se suscitat ira (108): cf. variisque acuunt rumoribus iras (9.464); vim suscitat ira (5.454).
- tum socios (110): the only other use at 9.12, of Turnus' comrades.
- fata docens (111): cf. fata renarrabat divum cursusque docebat (3.717); te tua fata docebo (6.759).
- regique iubet responsa Latino (111): cf. vos contra regi mea nunc mandata referte (7.267); Turno regi responsa ferebant (9.369); haec memores regi mandata referte (11.176); quae referant fari iubet, et responsa reposcit / ordine cuncta suo (11.240f.).
- pacis dicere leges (112): cf. sub leges pacis iniquae (4.618).
 

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Lines 113-160:

- postera vix summos spargebat lumine montis / orta dies (113f.): cf. postera iamque dies primo surgebat Eoo (3.588); et iam prima novo spargebat lumine terras (4.584/9.459).
- alto...gurgite (114): cf. aut ad terram gurgite ab alto / quam multae glomerantur aves (6.310f.); aeriam sed gurgite ab alto / urgeri volucrum raucarum ad litora nubem (7.704f.); ni roseus fessos iam gurgite Phoebus Hibero / tingat equos (11.913f.).
- lucemque elatis naribus efflant (115): cf. semine ab aetherio spirantis naribus ignem (7.281); efflantem faucibus ignis (7.786).
- dis communibus (118): cf. communemque vocate deum (8.275).
- verbena tempora vincti (120): cf. puniceis ibant evincti tempora taenis (5.269); populeis adsunt evincti tempora ramis (8.286).
- legio Ausonidum (121) cf. legio Aeneadum (10.120).
- hinc Troius omnis / Tyrrhenusque ruit variis exercitus armis (122f.): cf. Teucrique sequuntur / Tyrrhenique omnes et versis Arcades armis (11.92f.); Tyrrhenique duces, Tyrrhenum exercitus omnis (11.171).
- instructi ferro (124): cf. socios simul instruit armis (3.471/8.80).
- si aspera Martis / pugna vocet (124f.): cf. pugna aspera surgit (9.667/11.635).
- mediis in milibus (125): cf. Penthesilea furens, mediisque in milibus ardet (1.491).
- ipsi / ductores auro volitant ostroque superbi (125f.): cf. arte laboratae vestes ostroque superbo (1.639); ipsique in puppibus auro / ductores longe effulgent ostroque decori (5.132f.).
- genus Assaraci Mnestheus (127): cf. genus egregium Fauni (7.213, of Latinus).
- Messapus equum domitor, Neptunia proles (128): cf. 7.691; 9.523.
- defigunt tellure hastas et scuta reclinant (130): cf. stant terra defixae hastae (6.652); arboris acclinis trunco (10.835).
- invalidique senes (132): cf. longaevosque senes ac fessas aequore matres / et quidquid tecum invalidum metuensque pericli est (5.715f.).
- turris ac tecta domorum (132): cf. Dardanidae contra turris ac tota domorum / culmina convellunt (2.445f.); cum muros arcemque procul ac rara domorum / tecta vident (8.98f.); moenibus in patriis atque inter tuta domorum (11.882).
- obsedere, alii portis sublimibus astant (133): cf. obsedere alii telis angusta viarum (2.332); obsedere fores, has servant agmine denso (2.450).
- summo... / prospiciens tumulo (134ff.): hyperbaton stretching over three lines; also, cf. alto / prospiciens (1.126f.); tumulo speculatur ab alto (11.853, of Opis).
- qui nunc Albanus habetur (134): cf. locos qui post Albae de nomine dicti / Albani (tum rex stabula alta Latinus habebat) (9.387f.).
- tum neque nomen erat neque honos aut gloria monti (135): cf. semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt (1.609); et nunc servat honos sedem tuus, ossaque nomen / Hesperia in magna, si qua est ea gloria, signat (7.3f.).
- campum aspectabat et ambas / Laurentum Troumque acies urbemque Latini (136f.): cf. Laurentisque docet populos urbemque Latini (6.891); castraque Dardanidum aspectat populosque Latinos (10.4).
- diva deam (139): a concentration of divinity; cf. how Turnus referred to Venus (dea mater, 52).
- stagnis quae fluminibusque sonoris / praesidet (139f.): cf. Geticis qui praesidet arvis (3.35).
- decus fluviorum (142): cf. decus Italiae (11.508, of Camilla).
- animo gratissima nostro (142): cf. profugis gratissima Teucris (10.158).
- caelique libens in parte locarim (145): cf. regni demens in parte locavi (4.374, said by Dido to Aeneas).
- qua visa est Fortuna pati Parcaeque sinebant (147): cf. qua tua te Fortuna sinet (6.96); dum fata deusque sinebat (4.651); dum fallere fata sinebant (11.701).
- nunc iuvenem imparibus video concurrere fatis (149): cf. infelix puer atque impar congressus Achilli (1.475); congressum Aenean nec dis nec viribus aequis (5.809); Europae atque Asiae fatis concurrerit orbis (7.224); viribus imparibus (10.459).
- vis inimica propinquat (150): cf. lux inimica propinquat (9.355).
- non pugnam aspicere hanc oculis, non foedera possum (151): cf. iam iam nec maxima Iuno / nec Saturnius haec oculis pater aspicit aequis (4.371f.); quicumque oculis haec aspicit aequis (9.209); hunc ego te, Euryale, aspicio? (9.481); at non, Evandre, pudendis / vulneribus pulsum aspicies (11.55f.).
- forsan miseros meliora sequentur (153): add it to the tattoo pile; also, cf. moniti meliora sequamur (3.188).
- terque quaterque manu pectus percussit honestum (155): cf. terque quaterque manu pectus percussa decorum (4.589, of Dido).
- non lacrimis hoc tempus (156): cf. non hoc ista sibi tempus spectacula poscit (6.37, said by the Sibyl to Aeneas).
- fratrem...eripe morti (157): cf. eripui, fateor, leto me (2.134); teque his ait eripe flammis (2.289).
- bella cie (158): cf. bella cient (1.541); Martemque cientis (9.766).
- conceptumque excute foedus (158): cf. concipe foedus (13).
- exhortata (159): cf. certatim sese Rutuli exhortantur in arma (7.472); natum exhortarer (8.510); exhortantur equos (11.610).
- incertam et tristi turbatam vulnere mentis (160): spondaic line; also, cf. Aeneas, tristi turbatus pectora bello (8.29); tristi turbatus tempore differt (11.470, of Latinus); tristi mulcatam morte Camillam (11.839).
 
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