How to say everybody?

A

Anonymous

Guest
What is the best way to say "everybody" in Latin?

Cassell's dictionary gives only examples in specific declensions such as:
omnes/omnium/omnibus

"Words" gives:
universus, universi N (2nd) M 2 1 M [XXXDX]

Which of these is better, and how do you decline the one that's better?
 

QMF

Civis Illustris
Depends on the sentence. It would be either omnes, omnium or omnibus, but which it would be depends on what "everybody" is doing in the sentence.
 
A

Anonymous

Guest
OK, so you're saying that the "omnes" set is better than the "universus" set. But I'm still having a hard time declining the "omnes" set. For example, I would think that "everybody" is used as nominative in the following examples, but apparently it is not.

EXAMPLES

not everyone is permitted to go to X = non licet omnibus <DATIVE?> adire X
the sun shines for everyone = sol lucet omnibus <DATIVE?>
Everyone does it. = Sic faciunt omnes.

Are the following correct?

DECLENSIONS, #3(ii)?
NOM: omnes
ACC: omnes
DAT: omnibus
GEN: omnium
ABL: omnibus
 

Cato

Consularis
Tamarix dixit:
EXAMPLES

not everyone is permitted to go to X = non licet omnibus <DATIVE?> adire X
the sun shines for everyone = sol lucet omnibus <DATIVE?>
Everyone does it. = Sic faciunt omnes.
The discrepancy here isn't really with the forms of omnes, but with the verbs and associated grammar of the sentence.

The verb for "is permitted" in Latin is licet. It is somewhat unusual in that this is an impersonal verb; paenitet - "it displeases" and taedet - "it bores" are two other examples of impersonal verbs. With these type of verbs, the person affected is placed in the dative, so licet omnibus = "it is permitted for all" -> "all are permitted."

The verb "shine" in latin is luceo, and just as in English it is an intransitive verb (i.e. it doesn't take a direct object). To say something "shines on X" means that the shining is "to the advantage of" or "for the sake of" X; this relationship in expressed in Latin via the dative of interest (sometimes called the ethical dative or dative of advantage). So we use the dative omnibus here. This is an important point, as there are a number of intransitive verbs in Latin which are used transitively in English (e.g. pareo - "obey", parco - "spare"). It is incorrect to use these verbs with a direct object in Latin (e.g. pareo te is wrong wrong wrong!); most of the time, the word we would call the direct object should instead be placed in the dative (e.g. pareo tibi is right right right!)

In your final example, omnes is indeed nominative, the subject of the sentence.
 
A

Anonymous

Guest
Thanks, Cato.

I was unfamiliar with special verbs like those in the examples, so they were throwing me off. (One more reason why I hate Cassell's Latin dictionary.) Your answer will hold me for a while.
 

kmp

Civis Illustris
Tamarix dixit:
I was unfamiliar with special verbs like those in the examples, so they were throwing me off. (One more reason why I hate Cassell's Latin dictionary.
What on Earth have you got against Cassell's Latin Dictionary? I use it all the time and find it invaluable.
 
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