Indo-European Religion

Pacifica

grammaticissima
Staff member
a tripartite social structure [...] priests, warriors and herdsmen.
Much as in medieval Europe. Those who pray (= clergy, priests, monks), those who fight (nobility, knights), those who work (peasants and other laborers).
 

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú
Well, Yamnaya isn't exactly like that. The classification learned from early India really doesn't apply to them.
 

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú
PIE notes:
In addition to *-om, a reconstructible ending, there is also an umambiguously reconstructible *-om.
It can be traced to the same genitive ending *-om plus the plural marker *-s which appears
in other forms (cf. acc. sg. *-om, acc. pl. *-om+-s>*-om.
A trace of this *-s may be visible in the Hittite genitive plural ending -enz-[an] of
pronomial bases.



The rise o the genitive plural formative *-om-s and the differentiation of the genitive singular and plural
should be considered a relatively late development, dated to the time when separate plural forms arose in Indo-European declension
and the genitive singular
and genitive plural could come into opposition.



Binarism penetrates the entire linguistic system. Grammatical and lexicogrammatical systems are in binary oppositions.

The nominal declension shows the existence of parallel inflectional markers with particularc clarity

The earliest markers of the IE genitive can be reconstructed as a set of doublet forms in
the singular and the plural. An ending *os (*-es) can be reconstructed for Proto Indo-European
from forms like Grk. podos,Skt. pad-as, "foot", Hitt. nepis-as.


An *-os ending must also be reconstructed for the plural on the evidence of Hittite, where -as indicates
the genitive in both the singular and plural: Hitt. ud-dan-as, genitive singular and plural of uddar "word".

Thus the ending *-os of PIE expressed the grammeme and the plural grammeme.

*-Om can also be distinguished in PIE. It functioned analogously.


Original oppostitions: Genitive singular/plural *-os, genitive singular plural *-om.

The two parallel genitive markers *-os and *-om. not differentiated by number, that arte reconstructed for the earliest state of
PIE are best reflected in Hittite, where the formatives -as and -an are genitive endings for both singular and plural.
In Hittite, -an appears only in nominals of common gender.




The semantics of the Hittite genitive endings must reflect an ancient PIE stage where the morphological doublets *-os and *-om were characterized by different semantic functions. From the Old Hittite information, *-os is to be reconstructed as a genitive formative (both singular and plural) for inanimate nouns, while *-om was the genitive (both singular and plural) for animate nouns.

Thus is ascribed to the earliest PIE stage a strict formal distincition in the expressino of morphological categories (specificaly, the genitive) based on an animacy opposition in nouns.


Plural genitive ending *-om <*-om-s destroyed the symmetry between the original two formatives and resulted in elimanation of *-om as a genitive marker.

The genitive singular marker *-os coincides formally with the nominative ending *-os of animate nouns.

An expanded genitive marker *-osyo, the original ending *-os plus an enclitic of pronominal origin, cf [Hitt. -ya- "and". Toch. A "and"], alike to the PIE relative pronoun *yo- "which"; for a
typological parallel cf. PIE *khoe, *khoi-s "which". *-osyo rose to disambiguate the two endings:
[Skt. vrkasya, gen. of vrkah, "wolf", OldPersn kara-hya, gen. of kara "army", Grk. lukoio, gen. of lukos, "wolf",
Arm. gayloy, gen. of gayl "wolf".

The main reason of redistribution of the original genitive markers was the
destruction of the binary animate/inanimate system of PIE and the switch of nouns from one class to the other, leading to the
varied formation of genitives observed, where the form of the genitive depends on the structural type of the noun stem.
The correlation with gender classes was lost, and the formatives became purely paradigmatic elements with various distributions depending on the structural type of the noun declension.
 
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I think Frazer & Gimbutas treat this matter, that the moon's celebrants were menstruating women, thought of as magical timekeepers. Hence the Indo-European witch, spinning at night, conjuring under a full moon: the sacred virginal moon-goddess Diana-Artemis, to see whom naked is to be transformed into a dead man, etc. There's also this, which though interesting is suspect. I don't know what special prerogative Queerists & Trans-scholars have in the realm of comparative myth.

Then again, in Balto-Slavic & Germanic myth the moon is an hombre, so maybe the Finnic peoples had a hand in it.

Apparently in early Greek myth the moon symbolized the Mother Goddess and her matriarchy. Time was read in lunations and a moon cycle was 28 days long signifying the length of a mentsrual cycle. Even the sun (the symbol of male fertility) was governed by the moon's three phases; new maiden, full nymph or nubile and old crone. It's said that the witches of Thessaly would threaten the sun in the moon's name with perpetual night. In early Greece at least, Queendom came long before kingdom it would seem.

But all this is from 20th century conjecture I've been reading on mythology over a few nights so who knows. Speaking of Moon-goddesses I am wondering if any light can be further shed on this phrase below in reference to Daphne and if it too alludes to menstrual cycles. I'm assuming it might but...

PicsArt_07-27-08.59.47.png
 

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú
Even the sun (the symbol of male fertility)

That goes to show you how Greek mythology was so influenced by the Near East. Although there are IE male sun gods.
 
That goes to show you how Greek mythology was so influenced by the Near East. Although there are IE male sun gods.

Speaking of equestrian-loving PIE, I wonder how far back variations on the white horse go? From what I'm reading he seems to pop up in the skies of many a culture. Zoroastrianism has the White Stallion in Sirius, which just so happens to be the brightest star in the skies, fairly significant I'd imagine. The Celts has/have Rhionann, Norse; Sleinir, Bhuddists, Khantaka, to name only a few.

Just going back to your post above and to tie it in somewhat with the sun, in Hindu myth Ashvamedha (a white horse) represented the sun and a king's fertility and was sacrificed to declare a king supreme. Interestingly this ritual went on till *1741 in various forms.

*Slight digression but I also read of a cult or culture somewhere in India that still to this day live under a matriarchy. The only one left in the world apparently. I'll have another look at this group a little later tonight.
 

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú
Speaking of equestrian-loving PIE, I wonder how far back variations on the white horse go? From what I'm reading he seems to pop up in the skies of many a culture. Zoroastrianism has the White Stallion in Sirius, which just so happens to be the brightest star in the skies, fairly significant I'd imagine. The Celts has/have Rhionann, Norse; Sleinir, Bhuddists, Khantaka, to name only a few.
I'll go through my books and post about what I can find soon.
 

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú
Quick notes:

The white horse has had an important role in mythology all round the Earth; their specific source being Proto Indo-European myth is not guaranteed.
(White horses symbolize and bear heroes and gods, bringing the light to triumph over the darkness. According to Herodotus white horses were sacred in the court of Xerxes the Great.)
Baltic tradition depicts the sun goddess Saulė traveling across the sky with a chariot pulled by four white horses; Slavic tradition has the white horse as a sacred divination aid.
In Hellenic myth, Helios has sacred white horses pulling his chariot; and white cattle and sheep were sacrificed to him. Sometimes white horses would be sacrificed as well.
For the Iranian tradition, the star Sirius is a white stallion, during the last ten days of every Zarathustrian month, in a battle for contol of the rain.
In the Avestan hymns to Tishtrya, the divinity is opposed by Apoaosha, a black stallion, unlike other IE branches.
In the Hindu symbolism, the horse is associated with the sun, and the sea is its stable and birthplace; the Asvamedha sacrifice is a celebraton of reconnection with the inner Sun.
Sungod Surya took the white horse Turaga, who rose of the ocean. Furthermore the horse Uchaishravas, snow-white with seven heads, was regarded as king of horses.
In Germanic tradition, the cultic role of the horse is present in many archaisms of IE origin. (Yggdrasill literally means "Odin's horse".) Sleipnir and Grani are the grey horses of gods and heroes.
The myth of two brothers Hengist and Horsa, leading the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain, was connected to the rite of the White Horse, thought to embody all cattle.
In Celtic tradition, the white horse is ridden by Rhiannon, ultimately from *rīgan-, "queen". The White Horse of Uffington may be of Belinos, a Celtic sungod with white horses.

Seeing as the Mesopotamian sungod Utu-Shamash who aids the hero Gilgamesh against the demon Humbaba also traveled through the sky on his chariot, the motif of sun-riding is not unique to IE.
 
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