Latin minimal pairs distinguished only by vowel length

What are some examples of words which are distinguished only by vowel length in Latin?

The first that comes to my mind is nominative versus ablative singular in first-declension nouns, which covers a whole host of nouns of course, e.g. via versus viā.

Another I came across yesterday is pārēre ‘obey’ versus parere ‘give birth’.

And I think hīc ‘here’ versus hic ‘this’, unless they’re the same word or one is a form of the other?

What are some other examples?
 

Ignis Umbra

Ignis Aeternus
And I think hīc ‘here’ versus hic ‘this’, unless they’re the same word or one is a form of the other?
They're not the same word. The former is an adverb while the latter is the nominative masculine singular form of the demonstrative pronoun.
 
Mala mali malo mala contulit omnia mundo.
Ah, right, mal-. How many mal- words are there?

mālo ‘I would rather’, mălum ‘an evil, mischief’, mālum ‘apple’, mălus ‘bad’, mālus ‘apple tree’, mālus ‘a mast, pole, beam’? Any others?

Also, what does your sentence mean?

Ah, ōs, ōris ‘mouth’ versus ŏs, ossis ‘bone’. Interesting, thanks!

They're not the same word. The former is an adverb while the latter is the nominative masculine singular form of the demonstrative pronoun.
I was wondering whether the adverb could have been some fossilised case form of the demonstrative pronoun.
 

Ignis Umbra

Ignis Aeternus

Imber Ranae

Ranunculus Iracundus
There are quite a few, actually.
Ah, right, mal-. How many mal- words are there?

mālo ‘I would rather’, mălum ‘an evil, mischief’, mālum ‘apple’, mălus ‘bad’, mālus ‘apple tree’,mālus ‘a mast, pole, beam’? Any others?
māla 'jaw'
Also, what does your sentence mean?
It appears to be an hexameter: Māla malī mālō mala contulit omnia mundō. So that would make it: 'By an apple did the jaw of an evil man bring all ills into the world.' Perhaps a reference to the fall of Adam.
 

Laurentius

Civis Illustris
Liber and līber, genitives leporis and lepōris, of lepus and lepos, and since none writes it, anus and ānus.
 

Imber Ranae

Ranunculus Iracundus
Apparently it's a Medieval distich:

Mala mali malo mala contulit omnia mundo;
Causa mali tanti femina sola fuit.
By an apple the jaw of a villainous man every ill to our world did bring;​
But woman alone was the cause of so monstrously evil a thing.​
 

Laurentius

Civis Illustris
Funny, before reading your translation I associated sola with causa.
 

Imber Ranae

Ranunculus Iracundus
It doesn't seem to affect the meaning much either way.
 

Pacifica

grammaticissima
Staff member
Plaga and plága, refert and réfert, est and ést, edó and édó, venit (pres.) and vénit (perf.), óris (gen. sg. of ós) and órís (dat./abl. pl. of óra).
 

Imber Ranae

Ranunculus Iracundus
Vocative masculine singular of 1st/2nd declension adjectives (-e) vs their typically derived adverbs (-ē), e.g. prāve vs prāvē.

Present active infinitive (-ere) / 2nd person singular passive imperative (-ere) / 2nd person singular present passive indicative (-eris or -ere) vs 2nd person singular future passive indicative (-ēre or -ēris) of 3rd conjugation verbs (unless i-stem).

fūror (verb) vs furor (noun)

levis ('light') vs lēvis ('smooth')

venīre ('come') vs vēnīre ('go for sale/be sold').

vōcem/vōcēs (from vōx) vs vocem/vocēs (from vocāre).
 

Pacifica

grammaticissima
Staff member
I was wondering whether the adverb could have been some fossilised case form of the demonstrative pronoun.
It looks like it must be. A fossilized locative would make sense, but the form is reminiscent of the instrumental too, so I'm not sure.
 

Ater Gladius

Civis Illustris
Vincere and vincēre.

The nominative and ablative of first declension noun/adjectives.

The singular and plural nominative of fourth declension nouns.
 

Imber Ranae

Ranunculus Iracundus
acer ('maple tree') vs ācer ('sharp')

latus 'side/flank' vs lātus ('wide' or PPP of ferre)

legit (present) vs lēgit (perfect)
Vincere and vincēre.
There is no such form as vincēre*.
The nominative and ablative of first declension noun/adjectives.
He mentioned that one in the first post.
The singular and plural nominative of fourth declension nouns.
Genitive singular, too. This only applies to masculine and feminine nouns of the 4th declension.
 
Thank you very much for the other responses so far!

I had also wondered whether there might be any homonyms-but-for-length in form between present and perfect, and there have been several examples of that posted.
 
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