Sur "suis," la conjugaison de "être"

Je ne peux pas comprendre pourquoi "sum" en Latin s'est devenu a "suis" en Français, et le existence de "-s" me confond. Je sais que, par example, les -s finales de "je bois," "je finis," etc, ont été influencés par les conjugaisons similaires du second personnel tu. Mais est-ce que le "-s" final de "je suis " s'est aussi transfert de "tu es," même que les deux formes soient extrêmement différentes? Est-ce que, dans une forme ancienne de Français, le conjugaison de "je suis" était différent?
 
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Bitmap

Civis Illustris
It doesn't really answer that question, either, though. It offers some speculation that the -s might have developed in analogy to je puis from possum. That's all.
 

Agrippa

Civis Illustris
Isn't etymology very often often nothing but speculation?
 

Bitmap

Civis Illustris
That's true ... I was mainly pointing out that the book doesn't offer any comprehensive discussion or explanation on that topic, either, in case the OP doesn't know German.
 

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú
Fwiw, in Old French, sui was suis, but estois was "I stand".
 

Imperfacundus

Reprobatissimus
As Agrippa mentioned, the best we can do is speculate.

It isn't the only unexpected -s in Old French either. The derivative of vado 'I go' was, surprisingly enough, vois (pronounced as spelled).
Cross-linguistically, very commonly used words tend to show more irregularities. That's been my experience, at least.
 

Serenus

Civis Illustris
Je ne peux pas comprendre pourquoi "sum" en Latin s'est devenu a "suis" en Français, et le existence de "-s" me confond. Je sais que, par example, les -s finales de "je bois," "je finis," etc, ont été influencés par les conjugaisons similaires du second personnel tu. Mais est-ce que le "-s" final de "je suis " s'est aussi transfert de "tu es," même que les deux formes soient extrêmement différentes? Est-ce que, dans une forme ancienne de Français, le conjugaison de "je suis" était différent?
In Old French, verbs had the endings you'd expect in the 1st person singular form, without the -s.

sum > je sui (> now je suis)
vādō > je vai
dēbeō > je doi
crēdō > je croi
fugiō > je fui
morior > je muir (> now je meurs)
valeō > je vail (> now je vaux)
legō > je li
scrībō > je escrif (> now j'écris)
moveō > je muef (> now the very literary je meus)
jungō > je joing (> now je joins)
prendō > je preing (> now je prends)
audiō > je oi (now obsolete)
gaudiō > je joi (> now je jouis)
redimō > je raiem (now obsolete)
sedeō > je sié (now je m'assieds or je m'assois)
cadō > je chié (> now the very literary je chois)

Now, there were many verbs that happened to end in -s in the 1st person singular due to the regular sound changes from Latin to Old French, typically involving /t k/ > [ts] (> [ s]), or a stem with /s/ somewhere near the end in Latin.

-āre > -er verbs:
laxō > je lais
pretiō > je prois
pēnsō > *pēsō 'I weigh' > je pois
*dis-pettiō > je dépez (pronounced [depets])
spōnsō > je espos
captiō > je chaz (pronounced [tʃats])

-ere, -īre > -re, -ir verbs:
faciō > je faz (pronounced [fats]), or je fai
taceō > je tais (cf. tacēre > *tacīre/tacere > taisir/taire)
jaceō > analogized je gis (expected: *jais, cf. jacēre > *jacīre > gesir/gisir)
nāscor > je nais
crēscō > je crois
cognōscō > je conois
fīniō > *fīnīscō > je finis
exeō > je is
cōnsuō > late Old French je keus

Now, the above being the case in the mid and late 12th century, -āre > -er verbs began (re-)gaining an -e in the 1SG form afterwards as an analogy with the -e of the 2SG and 3SG forms (tu aimes, il aime(ṭ)). What was amō, cantō, laxō > je aim, chant, lais before then became je aime, chante, laisse. This did not affect -re, -ir and -oir verbs as they lacked the -e (tu escris, il escrit; tu finis, il finit).

Then, the -s of the 2SG was analogized to the 1SG throughout -re and -ir verbs, and also -oir verbs, on the basis of verbs like crēscō crēscis > je crois tu crois. Thus, sum, dēbeō, legō > je sui, doi, li became then je suis, dois, lis.
 
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In Old French, verbs had the endings you'd expect in the 1st person singular form, without the -s.

sum > je sui (> now je suis)
vādō > je vai
dēbeō > je doi
crēdō > je croi
fugiō > je fui
morior > je muir (> now je meurs)
valeō > je vail (> now je vaux)
legō > je li
scrībō > je escrif (> now j'écris)
moveō > je muef (> now the very literary je meus)
jungō > je joing (> now je joins)
prendō > je preing (> now je prends)
audiō > je oi (now obsolete)
gaudiō > je joi (> now je jouis)
redimō > je raiem (now obsolete)
sedeō > je sié (now je m'assieds or je m'assois)
cadō > je chié (> now the very literary je chois)

Now, there were many verbs that happened to end in -s in the 1st person singular due to the regular sound changes from Latin to Old French, typically involving /t k/ > [ts] (> [ s]), or a stem with /s/ somewhere near the end in Latin.

-āre > -er verbs:
laxō > je lais
pretiō > je prois
pēnsō > *pēsō 'I weigh' > je pois
*dis-pettiō > je dépez (pronounced [depets])
spōnsō > je espos
captiō > je chaz (pronounced [tʃats])

-ere, -īre > -re, -ir verbs:
faciō > je faz (pronounced [fats]), or je fai
taceō > je tais (cf. tacēre > *tacīre/tacere > taisir/taire)
jaceō > analogized je gis (expected: *jais, cf. jacēre > *jacīre > gesir/gisir)
nāscor > je nais
crēscō > je crois
cognōscō > je conois
fīniō > *fīnīscō > je finis
exeō > je is
cōnsuō > late Old French je keus

Now, the above being the case in the mid and late 12th century, -āre > -er verbs began (re-)gaining an -e in the 1SG form afterwards as an analogy with the -e of the 2SG and 3SG forms (tu aimes, il aime(ṭ)). What was amō, cantō, laxō > je aim, chant, lais before then became je aime, chante, laisse. This did not affect -re, -ir and -oir verbs as they lacked the -e (tu escris, il escrit; tu finis, il finit).

Then, the -s of the 2SG was analogized to the 1SG throughout -re and -ir verbs, and also -oir verbs, on the basis of verbs like crēscō crēscis > je crois tu crois. Thus, sum, dēbeō, legō > je sui, doi, li became then je suis, dois, lis.
Wow! Thank you for such a detailed response! Sounds like a lot of analogies were involved.
 

Clemens

Active Member
French verb stems and endings also went through tremendous leveling after the period known as Old French.
 
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