Book 6 (18.1-20.3)

Gaius Julius Caesar, Gallic Wars, Book 6: 18.1-20.3

De Bello Gallico: 18.1-18.3 (Latin)

(18.1) Galli se omnes ab Dite patre prognatos praedicant, idque ab Druidibus proditum dicunt.

(18.2) Ob eam causam spatia omnis temporis non numero dierum sed noctium finiunt; dies natalis et mensum et annorum initia sic observant ut noctem dies subsequatur.

(18.3) In reliquis vitae institutis hoc fere ab reliquis differunt quod suos liberos, nisi cum adoleverunt ut munus militiae sustinere possint, palam ad se adire non patiuntur filiumque puerili aetate in publico in conspectu patris adsistere turpe ducunt.

Gallic Wars: 18.1-18.3 (English Translation)

(18.1) Gauls proclaim themselves to have descended from Dis/Pluto, and they say this to be instituted by the druids.

(18.2) For this reason, all periods of time they limit by nights and not by days; they observe days of origin/birth, and beginnings of months and years the day to follow the night.

(18.3) In remaining customs of life they generally differ from the rest (of people) in this because they do not allow their children to approach them in public openly, except when they have grown up to sustain military service, and a son of childish age to appear in public in father's view they consider to be disgraceful.

De Bello Gallico: 19.1-19.5 (Latin)

(19.1) Viri quantas pecunias ab uxoribus dotis nomine acceperunt tantas ex suis bonis aestimatione facta cum dotibus communicant.

(19.2) Huius omnis pecuniae coniunctim ratio habetur fructusque servantur: uter eorum vita superarit, ad eum pars utriusque cum fructibus superirum temporum pervenit.

(19.3) Viri in uxores, sicuti in liberos, vitae necisque habent potestatem; et cum pater familiae inlustriore loco natus decessit, eius propinqui conveniunt et, de morte si res in suspicionem venit, de uxoribus in servilem modum quaestionem habent et, si compertum est, igni atque omnibus tormentis excruciatas interficiunt.

(19.4) Funera sunt pro cultu Gallorum magnifica et sumptuosa; omniaque quae vivis cordi fuisse arbitrantur in ignem inferunt, etiam animalia;

(19.5) ac paulo supra hanc memoriam servi et clientes quos ab eis dilectos esse constabat iustis funeribus confectis una cremabantur.

Gallic Wars: 19.1-19.5 (English Translation)

(19.1) Assessment having been done, men from their possessions join so much with dowries, as much money as they have received from their wives by way of dowries.

(19.2) An account is kept of all this money together and the profits are put aside: whichever of them survives, to that one arrive both shares with profits left over of time.

(19.3) Men have power of life and death over their wives just as over childern; and when the father family, born in illustruous place, has died, his relatives come together and, if things about the death come into suspision, they question the wives in the way of slaves (i.e., with tortures), and if there has been a discovery, they kill the tortured (wives) with fire and by torture.

(19.4) Given the Gauls' culture, funerals are great and expensive; and all things that are thought to have been close to the heart for the living are brought into fire, even animals;

(19.5) and a little beyond this memory (our days), slaves and clients who, it was evident, were dear to him, when the proper funeral rites were finished, were cremated together.

De Bello Gallico: 20.1-20.3 (Latin)

(20.1) Quae civitates commodius suam rem publicam administrare existimantur habent legibus sanctum, si quis quid de re publica a finitimis rumore aut fama acceperit, uti ad magistratum deferat neve cum quo alio communicet:

(20.2) quod saepe homines temerarios atque imperitos falsis rumoribus terreri et ad facinus impelli et de summis rebus consilium capere cognitum est.

(20.3)
Magistratus quae visa sunt occultant, quaeque esse ex usu iudicaverunt multitudini produnt. De re publica nisi per concilium loquo non conceditur.

Gallic Wars: 20.1-20.3 (English Translation)

(20.1) These states which are thought to administrate their public affairs rather well, consider that has been established by law if anyone shall have received anything from neighbours about the public affairs by means of rumour or report, they think that a man should report (it) to the magistrate and not share it with anyone else:

(20.2) because it is known that often people terrified by rash and inexperienced false rumours and persuaded to an evil deed and about the highest things take counsel (conspire).

(20.3) Magistrates, hide those things that seem necessary to hide and they publish those things which they have judged useful to the multitude. It is not permitted to speak about public affairs, except in council.