Interesting Words (moved from Games)

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú
Iama, a word for Yahweh that I have never heard in my entire life.
 

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú

Pacifica

grammaticissima
Staff member

Pacifica

grammaticissima
Staff member

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú
Yeah. Although it’s not as surprising when you consider the historical context ofc.
 

Pacifica

grammaticissima
Staff member
Yes, but it's still funny.
 

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú
It ain’t funny, it be dazzling.
 

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú
The above is interesting because it kinda shows what being wealthy was viewed as. Wouldn’t have guessed that will and wealth are relate.
 

Serenus

Civis Illustris
There is a late 11th century text that refers to "the Cid, the champion", or man-of-the-field (in early 13th-century Old Spanish: el Çid, el campeador) as "campi doctor" or "campi doctus".

This thread is too long for me to check: this word "champion" reminds me, has anyone mentioned "companion" is literally "someone you eat bread with"? It comes from com- + pānem + probably the ending -ius (which derives adjectives or nouns with a characteristic) + the Romance augmentative -ōnem, and ultimately probably a calque of an old Germanic word. See the Wiktionary entry for the Old French word, compaing compaignon:
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/compaignon
 

Pacifica

grammaticissima
Staff member
I don't remember if "companion" has been mentioned on this very thread, but it has been on the forum, at least. I didn't know that it was a calque from a Germanic word, though.
 

Bestiola

Moderatrix
Staff member
There is a late 11th century text that refers to "the Cid, the champion", or man-of-the-field (in early 13th-century Old Spanish: el Çid, el campeador) as "campi doctor" or "campi doctus".

This thread is too long for me to check: this word "champion" reminds me, has anyone mentioned "companion" is literally "someone you eat bread with"? It comes from com- + pānem + probably the ending -ius (which derives adjectives or nouns with a characteristic) + the Romance augmentative -ōnem, and ultimately probably a calque of an old Germanic word. See the Wiktionary entry for the Old French word, compaing compaignon:
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/compaignon
Actually, half of the authors think it's a Gothic loan into Vulgar Latin, while the other half think it was the other way around:

To introduce the problem, classic scholarship provides a rather unsolvable puzzle when it comes to the etymological analysis of the word companion. Among scholars, half assume that the Latin term is actually a semantic loan derived from Goth. gahlaiba while the other half assume the reverse, suggesting that the direction of the calque is, in fact, from Vulgar Latin into Gothic. Linguistically, both companio and gahlaiba could fit the definition of loan translation. And in fact, the historical situation in Western Europe during the earliest centuries of the first millennium ad (Heather 969) was conducive to large numbers of loans or borrowings¹ both from Germanic into Late Latin and from Late Latin into Germanic.

. THE SCHOLARSHIP OF GOTHic GAHLAIBA. The sole evidence presented by those scholars who maintain the view of an original Gothic coining borrowed into Latin is that the first attestation of the Gothic compound gahlaiba, literally ‘co-breader’, comes from the Gothic Bible which is ascribed to Wulfila or Ulphilas (b. 3 d. 380 or 38)³ and dates from the 4th century ad. Feist (939:83) states that gahlaiba derives from an unattested *gahlaifs, and gives its meaning as ‘der das Brot mit jemandem gemainsam hat’, in other words, ‘he who has bread in common with someone’. Feist thenadds that this is a loanword from VL *cumpanio from Lat. pānis ‘bread’, OF. compain, Fr. compagnon but that it is possible that the Latin term is a calque fashioned after the Germanic compound and cites Meyer-Lübke (935:2093) in support.
Lehmann (986:39) reports that while Velten (930:345) also regards Goth. gahlaiba, OHG ga-leipo, as a calque from the Vulgar Latin military term *companion, on the other hand, Meillet (966:266–78), Scardigli (964:88–89, 283–84), and MeyerLübke (935:2093) among others, prefer to assume that the Vulgar Latin term was based on Goth. gahlaiba. Indeed, Meillet (966:277–78) states that ‘la formation de companion calque celle de got. gahaiba “qui partage le pain avec”: il y a là un terme militare, venant de pratiques militaires.’ He also points out that ‘..la notion de companion se retrouve dans le nom arménien әnker “compagnon”, littéralement “qui mange avec.” ’ Scardigli (964:88–220) concedes that there are many calques from Greek and Latin into Gothic and reasons that many of the semantic translations created by Wulfila suggest both bilingualism and biculturalism among the Goths. Were it otherwise, the referents of those calques would not have been readily understood by his intended audience. Scardigli further notes that, among the attestations of gahlaiba, there are some inconsistencies. For instance, in the Naples document, we find both gahlaibim, which is a theme in -i-, and gahlaibaim, which suggests a strong adjective with a theme in -a-. Both of these terms, however, should belong to the declension in -n- as compounds with ga- generally do. Scardigli believes that Wulfila probably created the term, and that the Goths took it with them into Italy (Scardigli 964:220).
Meyer-Lübke (935:2093) flatly affirms, under a reconstructed *companion -ōne ‘Genosse’, that the Latin term is a formation patterned after Germanic gahlaiba and gives its cognates in Romance languages; thus Italian compagno, Old French compain, compagnon, Provençal companh, companhó, Catalan company, companyó, Spanish compaño. Meyer-Lübke lists as derivatives It. compagnia, Fr. compagnie, Prov. companhia, Sp. compañia, Port. companhia ‘Gessellshaft’. Moreover, in the entry preceding that of companion, 2092a, he provides another postulated form: *companicum ‘Naturalverpflegung’ (provisions) which supposedly gives Salmanca compango.
In fact, the term compango in Asturian refers to a meat dish accompanied by beans and not by bread (Ferreiro, Manzano, Rodríguez 995: 30).
Lastly, in a two-part study on Gothic borrowings, Velten (930:335) finds that there are about 400 calques or loan translations⁴, in Gothic, modeled after Greek and Latin compounds compared to a mere 6 loanwords from these two languages (Velten 930:332). Among these semantic loans, Velten lists the term gahlaiba which calques Gr. συστρατιώτης and Lat. commilito: ‘gahlaiba = Vulgar Latin *cumpanio, French compagnon “one who eats from the same loaf ” from panis’ (Velten 930:35). Velten then suggests that gahlaiba renders a military term that belonged to the colloquial speech of the Roman legions with which the Goths were well acquainted in Wulfila’s time (Velten 930:36).


From Della Volpe, Angela. 2004. On Gothic gahlaiba and Latin companion: An excursus in historical linguistics methodology.
 

Glabrigausapes

Jive Turkey
Latin mille really blew me away. It's just one of those words I've never connected on my own/thought to look up.

Incidentally, I'm trying to Latinize the S सहस्रद्वार sahasradvãr 'having a thousand doors' (said of Varuna's house). Does anyone know of such compounds with mille? Does millijanuus look like a sound choice? Or milliforus/ milliforaeus?
 

Pacifica

grammaticissima
Staff member
Does anyone know of such compounds with mille?
The OLD has milifolium and milipeda (both nouns). For "thousand-doored" I might say perhaps miliianuatus? Or miliianuus as you said.
 

Pacifica

grammaticissima
Staff member

Etaoin Shrdlu

μεσσηγυδορποχέστης
I suppose it's just possible that Catullus knew, but I can't really see the proximity of the words in the fifth poem as being deliberate wordplay.
 

Issacus Divus

H₃rḗǵs h₁n̥dʰéri diwsú
This thread is too long for me to check: this word "champion" reminds me, has anyone mentioned "companion" is literally "someone you eat bread with"? It comes from com- + pānem + probably the ending -ius (which derives adjectives or nouns with a characteristic) + the Romance augmentative -ōnem, and ultimately probably a calque of an old Germanic word. See the Wiktionary entry for the Old French word, compaing compaignon:
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/compaignon
I must've mentioned this a few times. Lovely word.
 

Etaoin Shrdlu

μεσσηγυδορποχέστης
I can't tell if Pacifica's shock is at the etymology or lack of A-containing numbers, but either way it seems excessive.
 
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